Historic Events and Social Change


The Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Foundation Presents

02:26

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About

HISTORY AND TELEVISION

As a productive cultural force, television is involved in projecting new modes and forms of historical understanding. These forms do not always follow from traditional scholarly or professional ideas about history. On the contrary, for a number of reasons, television has been widely seen as contributing to the disappearance or loss of history in the contemporary postmodern condition. The emphasis on television's "liveness," based in its technology and its common discursive and rhetorical strategies, has led some theorists to the conclusion that television plays a central role in erasing a sense of the past, and eliminating a common, coherent linear sense of cultural and social development.

It is certainly the case that conventional history is increasingly hard to identify in mass culture, especially in the form of coherent linear narratives, a clear set of major historical players, or readily identifiable class struggles. At the same time, however, television seems obsessed with defining itself in relation to history. Television's ubiquity suggests that its conceptions of history--both its representations of specific events and its appropriation of history as a way of understanding the world--must be taken seriously. Television does not supplant, but coexists with, familiar ideas about how we know the past, what we know of the past, and the value of such knowledge. In the process, television produces everyday forms of historical understanding.

As a result, it is probably more accurate to propose that television is contributing to a significant transformation and dispersion of how we think about history, rather than to the loss of historical consciousness. Television offers forms of history that are simultaneously more public than traditional, professional history and more personal and idiosyncratic. This is because the medium's historical narratives are available to mass viewing publics, but also engage viewers in diverse, and even highly idiosyncratic ways. While history may be conceived in both broadly social and intensely personal terms, television has transformed the ways in which individuals understand and position themselves in relation to either of these definitions.

In the case of the United States, it is nearly impossible to think about American culture and its global influence today without including everyday media culture as an integral part of this history. Significant historical events and conjunctures of postwar 20th century American history--the Vietnam war, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, civil rights and student protests, the Challenger explosion, the Persian Gulf War--can hardly be imagined without the television images which carried them into American (and other) homes. Similar conditions, events, and moments, such as the collective memory of the 1952 coronation of Queen Elizabeth for British viewers, exist in other nations of the world which have also had a long experience with television. As these examples suggest, for some established nation-states television can actually connote national identity through a televisual history. Other nations and regions, particularly in the postcolonial world, have yet to see representations of their national identity consistently emerge on their television screens. And yet another group of nations and regions, such as post-apartheid South Africa, are experiencing a transformation of the historical representation of their televisual national identity.

Nearing the end of the 20th century, the idea of "video diplomacy" also has increasing importance in a world linked by telecommunications technology and covered by international television news organizations. Indeed television news--with its emphasis on being live and up to date--is one of the key places where television most insistently promotes its historical role. The rapid growth of television in the postcolonial world, coincident with the end of the Cold War (since 1989, sets in use worldwide have doubled, with most of that growth in the postcolonial world) suggests that the impact of televisual history first experienced in the United States will now be seen on a world scale. The live televising of coups and crises in post-Soviet Russia is one recent example of the globalizing trend of television and historical consciousness. Other indicators include the unprecedented global circulation of war reporting, of political journalism, and of the lives and misfortunes of celebrities.

In other contexts television links history to world-historical events, often before they have even begun. The term "history" is regularly used to designate events before, during, and after they occur. In this vein, television casts all sorts of events as history including the Middle East peace summit in Madrid; the fall of the Berlin Wall; the annual World Series in baseball; Michael Jordan's return to basketball; odd spectacles such as "Hands Across America;" and the first primetime airing of the final episode of M*A*S*H. From the apparently sublime to the apparently inexplicable, "history" is a term and a conceptual field that television often bandies about with surprising frequency and persistence. In the process conventional ideas of history as a distinctive temporal and narrational discourse are dispersed. "History" becomes a process wherein events and people in the present (and future) are simultaneously implicated in a social, political, and cultural heritage. Past and present, then and now, are set in a temporal tourniquet, akin to a moebius strip.

Television routinely correlates liveness and historicity in the form of equivalence, alibi, reversals, and identity, especially in the area of news and public affairs/documentary programming. In the context of news coverage, especially events that warrant live coverage, it is not unusual to hear that the events thus presented are "historic." At the same time, the very presence of television at an event constitutes a record for posterity. In this sense television acts as an agent of history and memory, recording and preserving representations to be referenced in the future. The institution of television itself becomes the guarantor of history, even as it invokes history to validate and justify its own presence at an event.

Another factor at work in this array is the long-term search by broadcasters for a recognition of their own legitimacy as social institutions; many critics of television have linked the rise of a televisual historical consciousness and the aggressive self-promotion of the broadcasting industry when criticizing television for its supposed failure to fully advance public ideals. Even while driven by the lure of significant profit American television broadcasters are often desperate to dissociate themselves from discourses presenting television as a vast wasteland. As part of a spirited defense against their many detractors they point to their unique ability to record and represent history. The "high culture--low culture" debate, so prevalent in analyses of American media, has sunk its roots into this issue as well.

In much of the rest of the world, by contrast, government investment in broadcasting has meant that questions of legitimation, and subsequent defense through claims of unique historical agency, have been less urgent. However, following the worldwide wave of privatization of media outlets which began in the 1980s television broadcasters throughout the world may begin to mimic their American predecessors. They, too, may protect their self interests by turning the production of "history on television" and "television as history" into a useable past.

As a result of all these activities, it is possible to see how forms of historical consciousness purveyed by television get transformed in the process of representing current events that are all equally "historic." Television promotes ideas about history that involve heterogeneous temporal references--past, present, and future. But actual historical events are unstable combinations of public and private experiences, intersecting both global and local perspectives. By proposing combinations and permutations of individual memory and official public document, television produces a new sense of cultural and social viewers.

For example, in relation to past events, television frequently addresses viewers as subjects of a distinctive historical consciousness: Americans of various ages are all supposed to remember where we were when we first heard and saw that John F. Kennedy was shot, that the space shuttle Challenger had exploded, or when the bombs began to drop on Baghdad, signaling the start of the Persian Gulf War. The drama of the everyday can be similarly historicized when, for example, television promotes collective memories of Kathy Fiscus for one American generation or Baby Jessica for another. By addressing viewers in this way, television confirms its own central role as the focal point of the myriad individual experiences and memories of its individual viewers. In the process the medium brings sentimental domestic drama into direct relation with public, domestic, and global histories.

In all these instance, television's ideas of history are intimately bound up with the history of the medium itself (and indirectly with other audiovisual recording media), and with its abilities to record, circulate, and preserve images. In other words, the medium's representations of the past are highly dependent on events that have been recorded on film or video, such that history assumes the form of television's self-reflection. The uses of available still photography and audio recordings can also, on occasion, play a significant role in this regard. The medium's own mechanisms--its prevailing technologies and discourses--become the defining characteristics of modern historiography. Similarly, the television journalist--particularly the news anchor--can become an embodied icon of television's ability to credibly produce and represent history. Many nations have (or have had) a number of individuals achieve this status typically associated with an American reporter like Walter Cronkite. Now television journalists seem on the cusp of achieving this at transnational and transcultural levels. An emergent example here is Peter Arnett, correspondent for the Cable News Network (CNN). Television may in the process also begin to produce a new sense of global histories, along with national and personal histories.

This self-reflective nature of television's historiography develops in relation to both public events and in relation to the medium's own programming. American television routinely celebrates its own past in an array of anniversary, reunion, and retrospective shows about its own programs, and even in "bloopers" specials which compile outtakes and mistakes from previously-aired programs. Programs of this ilk serve multiple functions, and have various implications with regards to ideas of history. Self-promotion, in the form of inexpensive, recycled programming, is one obvious motivation for these shows, especially as the multi-channel environment means that more "old" shows are rerun on broadcast and cable services. This also becomes a kind of self-legitimation, by means of retrospective logic. For if American programs such as The Tonight Show, The Brady Bunch, or Laverne and Shirley warrant celebratory reunion or retrospective celebration, even years after they are no longer in production, this must mean they are important cultural artifacts/events.

Television thus continually rewrites its own past in the form of "history" as a way of promoting itself and its ongoing programming as a significant, legitimate part of culture. In the process, postwar American popular culture is held up as the measure of social-cultural history more generally. All viewers are enjoined to "remember" this heritage, whether they experienced it first-hand, in first-run, or not. This can even lead to the production of instant nostalgia, when special programs herald popular series' final episodes (such as occurred with Cheers and Knots Landing), just as those final new episodes air in primetime. This sort of self-promotional and self-reflective ballyhoo (in network specials, as well as on talk shows, entertainment news programs, and local news programs around the country) proposes that these programs have been absorbed into a common popular cultural historical heritage from the very moment they are no longer presenting new episodes in primetime.

Programming schedules and strategies in themselves adopt and offer these new ideas about history, especially in terms of popular culture. This is increasingly apparent in the multi-channel universe, as television becomes something of a cultural archive, where movies and television programs from the past are as readily accessible as new programs. This can even be made self-conscious, as in the case of Nick at Night (a programming subdivision of Nickelodeon, an American cable network), which features American sitcoms from the 1960s and 1970s, and promotes itself as "celebrating our television heritage." In 1995 Nickelodeon proposed a second network, programmed exclusively with old television shows. The name for this collection of reruns would be "TV-Land." Once again, the history in question is the medium's own history, self-referentially reproducing itself as having cultural value and utility.

Beyond these strategic constructions of the historical significance of television as medium, a specific sense of history also pervades television's fiction programs. Because of the nature of American commercial television programming, individual programs develop and project a sense of history in direct proportion to their success--the longer they stay on the air, the more development there is over time. Characters and the actors who portray them not only age, but accrue a sense of density of experience and viewers may establish variable relationships with these characters and their histories. This sense of continuity and history, linking and intersecting fictive worlds with the lives of viewers, seems strongest and most explicit in serial melodrama, but equally affects any successful, long-running series. It is also complicated by the question of syndication and reruns where the interplay of repetition and development, seriality and redundancy leads to the sense that history is malleable and mutable, at least at the level of individual, everyday experience. While many European television programs intentionally have a limited run of episodes, other long-running programs such as Eastenders indicate that this tendency is not unique to American television. Furthermore, complicated historical issues can certainly be involved in limited-run series, as suggested by miniseries such as Roots in the United States or Yearnings in China.

As suggested above, many of these ideas about history are powerfully played out in the context of serial melodrama, a genre which may seem as far removed from "history" in the conventional sense as anything on television. These "soap operas" offer stories that may continue for decades, maintaining viewer allegiances in the process, even though the stories are punctuated by redundancies on the one hand, and unanticipated reversals on the other. These narrative conventions are some of the very things for which the genre is often derided--slow dramatic progress, the ongoing breakups of good relationships, the routine revival of characters presumed dead, and sudden revelations that characters were switched at birth, or the product of previously unrevealed affairs, leading to major reconstruals of family relations. But these characteristic narrative strategies also produce a subtle and sophisticated sense of historicity and temporality, in the context of the accumulation of a long-term historical fiction and long-term viewing commitments. Among other things, they encourage a persistent reexamination of conventional assumptions and attitudes about lineage, and about family and community relations, in patriarchal culture. In the process they also offer a sense that the force and weight of the past is important, but not always readily transparent, requiring the active interpretive involvement and participation of the most ordinary people, including soap opera viewers. Complex and contradictory ideas about temporality and narrative contribute to a popular historical consciousness because they have everything to do with individuals' actual relations to and ideas about historicity. One example is found in the various telenovelas produced and aired in Brazil during the recent downfall of the Collor presidency; these telenovelas were read by audiences as socio-political texts embued with the twists and turns which eventually led to Collor's resignation.

Television also produces ideas about history through historical fictions, in particular in primetime dramas and historical miniseries. These offer particular revisions and interpretations of the past, often inflected by a sense of anachronism. It is not surprising that many controversial social issues continue to be readily explored in the context of historical narrative. For viewers, the historical fictions provide the alibi of a safe distance and difference in relation to situations they might encounter in the present. A range of programs have thus explored ideas about race, gender, and multiculturalism in anachronistic historical contexts, allowing the past to become the terrain for displacing and exploring contemporary social concerns. In this way particular historical moments, however fictionalized, may be revivified in conjunction with contemporary social issues. This occurs, for example, in programs as Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, I'll Fly Away, Homefront, and The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, to name some notable American examples from the 1990s.

While these historical frames permit an opportunity for exploring issues that might otherwise be considered overly controversial (especially in the present), they also propose that the issues are not necessarily of current or topical concern, since they are retrospectively projected into the past. In this context, it is also interesting to examine which periods of the past become fertile territory for reexamination. Television often focuses on periods which are based in the recent past and thus overdetermined in their familiarity; or, the chosen moments are widely recognized as eras of national transition or upheaval, providing opportunity for the exploration of many socially charged topics. Even within particular programs dealing with these particular periods, however, the idea of a stable linear historicity is not necessarily the rule.

In various ways, then, television situates itself at the center of a process wherein it produces and reconstructs history for popular consumption. For if the things it reports are historical, sometimes before they have even occurred, and if early television programs are our common cultural heritage, then the medium itself is the agent of historical construction. This reaches extremes when the medium's presence at an event becomes the "proof" of the event's historical importance, a tautological process which tends to encourage self-absorption, self-referentiality, and self-legitimation. Watching television and being on television become twin poles of a contemporary cultural experience of historicization. Viewers are likely to get caught up in this process.

There is, for example, the case of a young woman standing in a crowd on an L.A. freeway overpass in the summer of 1994, waiting for O.J. Simpson to pass by in a white Ford Bronco, trailed by police who were trying to arrest him. A reporter from CNN asked her why she was there. She explained that she had been watching it all on television, and realized that O.J. would pass near her house and, she said, "I just wanted to be a part of history." In the logic of contemporary television culture she achieved her goal, because she was on television and was able to write history in her own voice, live, with her presence and participation in a major televised event.

- Mimi White and James Schwoch

FURTHER READING

Boddy, William. Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

Caldwell, John Thornton. Televisuality: Style, Crisis, and Authority in American Television. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Dayan, Daniel, and Elihu Katz. Media Events: the Live Broadcasting of History. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.

Freehling, William W. "History and Television." Southern Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal of the South (Natchitoches, Louisiana), Spring, 1983.

Jameson, Frederic. Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991.

Jenkins, Henry, III. "Reading Popular History: The Atlanta Child Murders." Journal of Communication Inquiry (Iowa City, Iowa), Summer, 1987.

Lipsitz, George. Time Passages: Collective Memory and American Popular Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990.

McChesney, Robert, and William Solomon, editors. Ruthless Criticism: New Perspectives in U.S. Communication History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

Monaghan, David. "Em-Bodying the Disembodied: Tumbledown, Resurrected, and Falklands War Mythology." 1993 Works and Days: Essays in the Socio-Historical Dimensions of Literature and the Arts (Indiana, Pennsylvania), Fall, 1993.

Negt, Oskar, and Alexander Kluge. Offentlichkeit und Erfahrung (Public Sphere and Experience). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

O'Connor, John E., editor. Image as Artifact: the Historical Analysis of Film and Television. Washington: American Historical Association, 1990.

Pilgrim, Tim A. "Television and the Destruction of Democracy: Blurring of Fiction and Fact as a Hegemonic Tool." Studies in Popular Culture (Louisville, Kentucky), 1992.

Ronning, Helge, and Knut Lundby. Media and Communication: Readings in Methodology, History, and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Schudson, Michael. The Power of News. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Schwoch, James, Mimi White, and Susan Reilly. Media Knowledge. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.

Spigel, Lynn. Make Room for TV. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Winston, Brian. Misunderstanding Media. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986.

Highlights
Tim Russert on his Meet the Press broadcast with Vice President Dick Cheney in the aftermath of 9/11
02:09
Larry King on his experiences during 9/11
02:16
Walter Cronkite on "the great story of our century"; man landing on the moon
01:33
Barbara Walters on John F. Kennedy's assassination
03:39
Sam Donaldson on how press access changed between the Vietnam and the Gulf Wars
01:26
Ed Bradley on covering a Martin Luther King, Jr. speech during his first field reporting experience for a Philadelphia radio station
03:09
Who talked about this topic

Robert Adler

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Robert Adler on early projects he was assigned at Zenith and on Zenith and World War II
05:40

Mary V. Ahern

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Mary V. Ahern on her experience during World War II
02:21
Mary V. Ahern on how opportunities for women in television have changed over the years
01:24
Mary V. Ahern on her experience as a female television producer in the 1950s
02:12

John Amos

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John Amos on the public reaction to Roots
02:34
John Amos on his experience playing "Kunta Kinte" on Roots and how his background prepared him for it
12:12
John Amos on the effect of Roots on his personal self-esteem
01:00
John Amos on guest-starring on Two and a Half Men
03:36
John Amos on how roles for African-Americans have changed since he started acting
01:39

Alex Anderson

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Alex Anderson on his experience with World War II
01:49

Howard Anderson, Jr.

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Howard Anderson Jr. on his military service 
02:05

Charlie Andrews

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Charlie Andrews on his service in World War II
01:49

Lucie Arnaz

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Lucie Arnaz on problems faced with I Love Lucy due to her father, Desi Arnaz, being Cuban
01:05

Bob Banner

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Bob Banner on his service in World War II
02:19
Bob Banner on producing Peggy Fleming Visits the Soviet Union
05:43

Paris Barclay

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Paris Barclay on directing a pivotal episode of ER in which a main character is revealed to have AIDS, and seeing the power of television's reach
04:43

Cliff Barrows

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Cliff Barrows on Billy Graham's response to JFK's Assassination
01:24
Cliff Barrows on Billy Graham's response to the Civil Rights Movement
01:40
Cliff Barrows on his response to 9/11
02:10

Ralph M. Baruch

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Ralph M. Baruch on his family's experiences in World War II in Germany and France
19:08

William Bell

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William Bell on Walter Cronkite interrupting As the World Turns to announce President Kennedy had been killed
02:12
William Bell on incorporating events of the Vietnam War into the storylines of Days of Our Lives
05:05

Dick Berg

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Dick Berg on his experiences in World War II
01:33

Lowell Bergman

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Lowell Bergman on his opinion of network news when he joined ABC and investigating Chappaquiddick
04:33

Milton Berle

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Milton Berle on booking the African-American group The Four Step Brothers on Texaco Star Theater
05:31

Wade Bingham

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Wade Bingham on shooting the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II for CBS News
01:37

William Blinn

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William Blinn on "Huggy Bear" on Starsky and Hutch
01:28

Haskell Boggs

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Haskell Boggs on his activities during World War II
03:06

Mili Lerner Bonsignori

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Mili Lerner Bonsignori on working on the pilot episode of See It Now which followed how a donation of blood made it to a soldier in the Korean War
00:28
Mili Lerner Bonsignori on not being treated as an equal to the men on See It Now
04:20

Al Borden

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Al Borden on his experience in World War II and living through the Great Depression
01:24
Al Borden on his service in World War II
01:48

Peter Boyle

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Peter Boyle on Everybody Loves Raymond being in production during 9/11 and launching promotions for syndication that morning
02:08

Kevin Bright

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Kevin Bright on how Friends responded to 9/11
02:37

David Brinkley

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David Brinkley on his World War II experience
02:34
David Brinkley on covering the Civil Rights Movement
00:56
David Brinkley on interviewing a young Martin Luther King, Jr. before the Brown vs Board of Education ruling came down
01:41
David Brinkley on Jesse Helms, at the time, a local Southern reporter who went on the air to "answer Brinkley's lies"
01:39
David Brinkley on covering John F. Kennedy's assassination
04:51

Vivian Brown

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Vivian Brown on how The Weather Channel deals with severe weather conditions including Hurricane Katrina
03:47
Vivian Brown on reporting on Hurricane Katrina for The Weather Channel
03:50
Vivian Brown on reporting on Hurricane Sandy for The Weather Channel
02:35
Vivian Brown on reporting from The Weather Channel on 9/11
04:16
Vivian Brown on dealing with racism in the industry
02:32
Vivian Brown on being a female meteorologist 
02:51

Vince Calandra

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Vince Calandra on getting African-American talent on The Ed Sullivan Show
03:24
Vince Calandra on Ed Sullivan's contributions to the Civil Rights Movement and putting African-Americans on television
02:51

Reuben Cannon

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Reuben Cannon on how the business of casting has changed since he started as the first black casting director
01:00

Jim Cantore

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Jim Cantore on covering Hurricane Katrina live from the field for The Weather Channel
12:35
Jim Cantore on covering the Joplin Tornado
06:59
Jim Cantore on covering Hurricane Sandy for The Weather Channel
02:14
Jim Cantore on weather events he's witnessed that have changed history
04:54

Marcy Carsey

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Marcy Carsey on the progression of her career at ABC and becoming head of series television
02:05
Marcy Carsey and Tom Werner on the Cosby spin-off A Different World and the awareness the program brought to black colleges
02:38

Thomas Carter

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Thomas Carter on the African-American cast of The White Shadow  and fan reaction to the show
02:23
Thomas Carter on addressing racial issues in the series Equal Justice
06:41
Thomas Carter on the portrayal of African-Americans on television in 2013
04:50
Thomas Carter on dealing with racism in his career
03:57

Tucker Cawley

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Tucker Cawley on his experience on 9/11
02:06

Leo Chaloukian

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Leo Chaloukian on hearing 4 gunshots in the recording from the motorcycle policeman at JFK's Assassination - indicating at least 2 gunmen
04:16

Marge Champion

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Marge Champion on her experiences during World War II
01:33

RuPaul Charles

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RuPaul Charles on the pressures of being black and gay during the run of The RuPaul Show and on RuPaul's Drag Race
RuPaul Charles on the legacy and message of RuPaul's Drag Race
01:37
RuPaul Charles on the contestants of RuPaul's Drag Race, and their courage and vulnerability
04:35
RuPaul Charles on his message as a performer
04:13

Michael Chiklis

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Michael Chiklis on 9/11 occurring during the run of The Shield
00:58

Sam Christaldi

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Sam Christaldi on Du Mont and the 1939 World's Fair and the early price of television sets
02:34
Sam Christaldi on World War II's impact on Du Mont
02:12

Ed Christie

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Ed Christie on designing a South African puppet with AIDS for Sesame Street South Africa
04:00

Robert Clary

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Robert Clary on being placed in a concentration camp with this family during World War II
04:48
Robert Clary on being liberated from Buchenwald in 1945
02:21
Robert Clary on how Hogan's Heroes was vastly different from his own real life World War II experience, and more on his character, "LeBeau"
05:25
Robert Clary on his eventual decision to share his and his family's story of being placed in a concentration camp during World War II
05:28
Robert Clary on his work speaking about the Holocaust for the Shoah Foundation, and on being the subject of the documentary "Robert Clary A5714: A Memoir of Liberation"
02:10
Robert Clary on being in Dallas when John F. Kennedy was assassinated
01:07

Art Clokey

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Art Clokey on working with film during World War II
11:13

Andy Cohen

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Andy Cohen on announcing the death of Osama bin Laden on Watch What Happens Live
00:57

Paul Rodriguez with Emerson College

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Paul Rodriguez on the Mexican-American community's reaction to a.k.a. Pablo, and their objections to his act
05:31
Paul Rodriguez on being inspired by Richard Pryor to use his Mexican heritage and identity in his act, and on the language he uses in his act
05:32
Paul Rodriguez on the then-current state of his career, and on his relationship with the Mexican-American community
03:12
Paul Rodriguez on things he has had the opportunity to do in his career, and on the then-current state of Latinos in comedy
02:00

Shelley Berman with Emerson College

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Shelley Berman on the importance of comedy in his life, and on the importance of comedy during World War II
11:34

Dick Gregory with Emerson College

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Dick Gregory on the challenges of an African-American comedian working nightclubs in the early 1960s
07:33
Dick Gregory on his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement
06:25
Dick Gregory on his relationship with Martin Luther King, and on when it's appropriate to joke about tragedy
04:35
Dick Gregory on taking a stand on civil rights issues, and on the power of music
02:41
Dick Gregory on if it was worth it, and on summing up his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement
11:52

Hugh Hefner with Emerson College

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Hugh Hefner on putting African American comedian Dick Gregory on Playboy's Penthouse and in his nightclubs
04:33

John Conte

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John Conte on seeing television at the 1939 World's Fair
02:47

Anderson Cooper

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Anderson Cooper on covering 9/11 and going to work for CNN
02:10
Anderson Cooper on covering Hurricane Katrina 
10:56
Anderson Cooper on covering the earthquake in Haiti 
05:54

Barbara Corday

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Barbara Corday on the premise of Cagney & Lacey and on dealing with women's issues on the show
04:43
Barbara Corday on the challenges of being a female executive in television
03:00
Barbara Corday on how the status of women in television has changed since she started
04:45

Fred de Cordova

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Fred de Cordova on his experiences in World War II
03:21

Alexander Courage

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Alexander Courage on becoming a bandleader in the Army during World War II and attending the Army Music School
04:44
Alexander Courage on starting to arrange music while he was in the Army
02:34

Katie Couric

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Katie Couric on feeling like most of the women at ABC News were in subservient positions
01:37

Douglas S. Cramer

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Douglas S. Cramer on developing Bridget Loves Bernie
03:21

Richard Crenna

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Richard Crenna on his activities during World War II
01:58

Robert Culp

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Robert Culp working on a Shirley Temple's Storybook episode when he heard that President Kennedy was shot
01:23

Bill Dana

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Bill Dana on being sent to witness the concentration camp at Dachau by President Eisenhower
07:08
Bill Dana on the Leopoldville disaster, the "Cheshire Cats," and visiting Dachau concentration camp
Bill Dana on the relationship of the fictional "Jose Jimenez "and the real Bill to the NASA Apollo program - Alan Shepard's code name was "Jose"
00:47

Ossie Davis

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Ossie Davis on participating in the Civil Rights Movement
06:31
Ossie Davis on seeing television for the first time at the World's Fair
04:22

James Day

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James Day on his experiences in World War II
05:05
James Day on Frieda Hennock, the first female commissioner of the FCC
02:14

Louis Dorfsman

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Louis Dorfsman on seeing television at the 1939 World's Fair and the development of color television
02:31

David Dortort

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David Dortort on his activities during World War II
03:31

Hugh Downs

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Hugh Downs on seeing television for the first time at the 1939 World's Fair
01:04
Hugh Downs on hosting the first television program on space "The First Step Into Space" and his interest in scientific programming
02:59
Hugh Downs on racial tensions and booking diverse guests on The Tonight Show
02:30

Betty Cole Dukert

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Betty Cole Dukert on hard to anticipate questions from female journalists and balancing the panel of reporters on Meet the Press
03:01
Betty Cole Dukert on Meet the Press'  coverage of The Cold War
07:21
Betty Cole Dukert on Fidel Castro appearing on Meet the Press
02:44
Betty Cole Dukert on Anastas Mikoyan appearing on Meet the Press
05:30
Betty Cole Dukert on the assassination of John F. Kennedy
03:04
Betty Cole Dukert on Martin Luther King, Jr. on Meet the Press
03:31
Betty Cole Dukert on Golda Meir and Anwar Sadat appearing on Meet the Press  and doing Meet the Press from Israel 
10:22
Betty Cole Dukert on Yassir Arafat appearing on Meet the Press
07:17
Betty Cole Dukert on covering the Vietnam War on Meet the Press
11:14
Betty Cole Dukert on being a female producer and the male to female ratio of guests on Meet the Press
04:56

Dominick Dunne

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Dominick Dunne on his service in the Army during World War II
07:03
Dominick Dunne on television coverage of the sinking of the Andrea Doria 
01:38

Ralph Edwards

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Ralph Edwards on his bond, paper, and copper drives with Truth or Consequences during World War II
02:34
Ralph Edwards on the 1958 episode of This Is Your Life set in Hawaii to honor those who perished at Pearl Harbor and raise funds for a memorial
03:17

Hector Elizondo

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Hector Elizondo on Cane  representing a Latino family
00:57

Ruth Engelhardt

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Ruth Engelhardt on her sister being an agent at William Morris, and on how she was treated as a woman in the industry
04:25

Jeannie Epper

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Jeannie Epper on being one of the founding members of the Stuntwoman's Association of Motion Pictures
03:36
Jeannie Epper on the challenges that stuntwomen face that stuntmen don't
04:04
Jeannie Epper on her few close fellow stuntwomen and the passing of her brothers and sisters
02:16
Jeannie Epper on the lack of women stunt coordinators
02:54

Danny Epstein

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Danny Epstein on being in the NBC studio when man walked on the moon
02:27

Jeff Fager

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Jeff Fager on producing stories in the Middle East in the 1980s for CBS Evening News with Dan Rather
04:08
Jeff Fager on covering the Soviet Union for CBS Evening News with Dan Rather, including a story where they explored what Russians were proud of
02:11
Jeff Fager on producing stories on the Gulf War for CBS Evening News with Dan Rather and 60 Minutes
03:01
Jeff Fager on where he was on 9/11 and coverage of the event on 60 Minutes II and CBS Evening News
04:55
Jeff Fager on the Abu Ghraib story on 60 Minutes II
09:00
Jeff Fager on the controversial 2013 60 Minutes story on Benghazi
06:31

Edie Falco

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Edie Falco on running into James Gandolfini on the street on 9/11 and how 9/11 affected The Sopranos
01:30

Jerry Falwell

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Jerry Falwell on civil rights issues
03:01
Jerry Falwell on how his ministry, and by extension Old Time Gospel Hour, deals with homosexuality
05:09

Jamie Farr

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Jamie Farr on keeping in touch with Red Skelton when Farr got drafted in 1957 and the pair entertaining troops together
04:13
Jamie Farr on getting drafted during the Korean conflict
00:57

Irving Fein

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Irving Fein on trying to serve as a publicist for a General during World War II
03:40

Julian Fellowes

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Julian Fellowes on the rape storyline on Downton Abbey
03:34

Betsy Fischer

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Betsy Fischer on major news events covered on Meet the Press - September 11, 2001
01:07

Les Flory

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Les Flory on preparing for broadcast television and the 1939 World's Fair
03:28
Les Flory on commercial television coming to a halt when World War II started and the development of new technologies during the war years
03:12

Tom Fontana

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Tom Fontana on being in New York City on 9/11
02:26
Tom Fontana on writing for America: A Tribute to Heroes 
01:53

Horton Foote

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Horton Foote on the television exhibit at the 1939 World's Fair
01:55
Horton Foote on his activities during World War II, and on bringing his play "Only the Heart" to Broadway
04:41

Eddie Foy, III

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Eddie Foy III on casting Julia
05:25

Reuven Frank

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Reuven Frank on seeing television at the 1939-40 World's Fair, and on his first job in television news
05:47
Reuven Frank on John Chancellor's coverage of the desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, AR for The Huntley-Brinkley Report
07:43
Reuven Frank on NBC covering the coronation of Queen Elizabeth
07:36
Reuven Frank on NBC News' coverage of the space race in the '60s
05:52
Reuven Frank on erection of the Berlin Wall
08:08
Reuven Frank on erection of the Berlin Wall
04:14
Reuven Frank on the Cuban Missile Crisis
04:17
Reuven Frank on NBC's coverage of the Bay of Pigs invasion
01:33
Reuven Frank on NBC's coverage of the John F. Kennedy assassination and funeral
04:43
Reuven Frank on Chet Huntley and David Brinkley reporting on the John F. Kennedy assassination and funeral for The Huntley-Brinkley Report
07:12
Reuven Frank on the NBC News documentary The Tunnel
21:29
Reuven Frank on the NBC News coverage of the Vietnam War
05:47
Reuven Frank on NBC News' coverage of the anti-Vietnam War movment
02:45
Reuven Frank on NBC News coverage of the Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King assassinations
04:51
Reuven Frank on NBC News coverage of the 1968 Democratic convention in Chicago
10:49

Jonathan Frid

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Jonathan Frid on his experience during World War II
05:22

Murray Fromson

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Murray Fromson on catching a glimpse of the Hindenburg flying over the Bronx on the day of its crash, on May 6, 1937
03:04
Murray Fromson on his experiences growing up during the Great Depression
01:47
Murray Fromson on seeing his Japanese-American classmates taken out of their classroom a few weeks after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the discrimination he witnessed against Japanese-Americans
02:07
Murray Fromson on what the atmosphere was like during the Great Depression, and how this inspired his interest in journalism
01:12
Murray Fromson on being drafted during the Korean War, and he came to write for "Stars and Stripes"
02:24
Murray Fromson on what it was like to write for "Stars and Stripes" during the Korean War, and how a story he wrote got him transferred from being stationed in Japan to Korea
02:38
Murray Fromson on some of his most striking memories of reporting for "Stars and Stripes" in Korea during the Korean War
04:29
Murray Fromson on getting in trouble for a story he wrote about a Marine while reporting for "Stars and Stripes" during the Korean War, and how this led to him being hired by the Associated Press
06:17
Murray Fromson on being a correspondent in Japan, reporting on Japan and Korea following the end of the Korean War
03:02
Murray Fromson on stopping in Saigon and Cambodia on his way to reporting in Singapore in 1956
03:29
Murray Fromson on covering Henry Cabot Lodge (Richard M. Nixon's running mate) for NBC News during the 1960 election, and watching the Kennedy-Nixon debates with Lodge
01:04
Murray Fromson on covering the Cuban Missile Crisis for CBS News
01:49
Murray Fromson on news coverage of the assassination of John F. Kennedy
01:19
Murray Fromson on his response to Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, having met King while covering the marches in Selma, AL
04:46
Murray Fromson on covering the Vietnam War for CBS News
03:53
Murray Fromson on torture he witnessed while covering the Vietnam War for CBS News, and a court martial trial he covered
04:46
Murray Fromson on the My Lai Massacre and the horrors of war
01:44
Murray Fromson on a piece he wrote for "The New York Times," which was an interview with an unnamed general who said the war in Vietnam was unwinnable - the general did not allow his name to be revealed until 2006 (it was Frederick C. Weyand)
03:23
Murray Fromson on how his transfer to the Chicago bureau of CBS News came about due to an experience in Vietnam
05:38
Murray Fromson on Walter Cronkite's visit to Vietnam
01:56
Murray Fromson on what he told Walter Cronkite on his visit to Vietnam
03:15
Murray Fromson on going to Moscow to cover the Soviet Union for CBS News in 1972
02:45
Murray Fromson on what it was like to live in Moscow during the Cold War and to report for CBS News
03:12
Murray Fromson on a press conference with Leonid Brezhnev before his visit to the United States in 1973
04:02
Murray Fromson on the biggest stories he covered while he was in Moscow for CBS News
04:45
Murray Fromson on covering the end of the Vietnam War, including the plane crash of a flight taking orphans out of Vietnam
05:20
Murray Fromson on the parallels between the Iraq War and the Vietnam War
01:19
Murray Fromson on 9/11 and its aftermath
01:42

Pamela Fryman

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Pamela Fryman on how the industry has changed since she started, and on women in the industry
03:49

James Garner

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James Garner on his family and World War II
01:23
James Garner on serving in the Korean War
03:02

Betty Garrett

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Betty Garrett on working at the 1939 World's Fair, and on the television exhibition
05:03

Greg Garrison

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Greg Garrison on his experience in World War II
04:00

Larry Gelbart

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Larry Gelbart on touring with Bob Hope during the war, and how Hope was almost a victim of a bombing attack while in Vietnam
01:32

David Gerber

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David Gerber on his experience in World War II
06:12
David Gerber on producing Flight 93 
05:22

Paul Michael Glaser

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Paul Michael Glaser on appearing on 60 Minutes  to discuss his wife Elizabeth Glaser's struggle with HIV/AIDS
01:41
Paul Michael Glaser on dealing with his wife and children's HIV-positive diagnoses and creating the Pediatric AIDS Foundation
03:39
Paul Michael Glaser on his role as the Chairman of the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation
07:56

Lesli Linka Glatter

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Lesli Linka Glatter on gender discrimination in her career, and discrimination and harassment in the television industry
04:49
Lesli Linka Glatter on how things have changed for women in the industry since she started
01:33

Gary David Goldberg

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Gary David Goldberg on the effect of 9/11 on Spin City
00:59

Leonard Goldberg

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Leonard Goldberg on the people helped by the TV movie Something About Amelia (which dealt with incest)
02:53

Lewis Gomavitz

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Lewis Gomavitz on his early experiences in theater and on meeting Burr Tillstrom at the 1939 World's Fair
06:30
Lewis Gomavitz on his experience with World War II
03:56
Lewis Gomavitz on his experiences with World War II and on working at an experimental television station
11:57
Lewis Gomavitz on being in mission control during the Moon Landing
02:16

Julian Gomez

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Julian Gomez on his personal experience of 9/11, and on television's function in the face of tragedy
06:02
Julian Gomez on editing the World Trade Center episode of Modern Marvels, later repurposed into The World Trade Center: Rise and Fall of an American Icon
10:15

Julian Goodman

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Julian Goodman on serving in World War II for a short time and contracting pneumonia
02:51
Julian Goodman on NBC news coverage of the Vietnam War
02:15
Julian Goodman on NBC's coverage of Lee Harvey Oswald's death - TV's first live murder
02:48
Julian Goodman on the significance of space coverage
00:11
Julian Goodman on NBC's coverage of the moon landing
01:12

Lee Grant

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Lee Grant on how opportunities for women in television have changed over the years
02:25

Donald Hall

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Donald Hall on Hallmark Hall of Fame's  presentation of "Green Pastures"
03:13

Robert Halmi, Sr.

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Robert Halmi, Sr. on producing the TV movie about abortion, Choices
02:25
Robert Halmi, Sr. on producing DC 9/11: Time of Crisis
03:04

Don Hastings

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Don Hastings on doing a scene on As the World Turns which was preempted by the Kennedy assassination
04:24

Jeffrey Hayden

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Jeffrey Hayden on Quincy's plots, including the episode "Seldom Silent, Never Heard," that influenced the passing of the Orphan Drug Act (ODA)
04:20

Florence Henderson

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Florence Henderson on working during her pregnancies
01:42
Florence Henderson on her role in Just Another Kid: an AIDS Story
03:29

Skitch Henderson

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Lyle "Skitch" Henderson on his proudest career achievement, and on his playing for three hour live on NBC the evening of the Kennedy assassination
03:25

Winifred Hervey

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Winifred Hervey on her recollections of 9/11
01:29

Don Hewitt

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Don Hewitt on his experience during World War II
06:38
Don Hewitt on covering the Queen Elizabeth Coronation
01:06
Don Hewitt on covering the Korean War for CBS News, and on how the technology of the industry has changed
04:48
Don Hewitt on producing the Kennedy-Nixon debates
01:39
Don Hewitt on the 1960 Kennedy-Nixon Debates
06:02
Don Hewitt on CBS News covering the assassination and funeral of John F. Kennedy
04:23
Don Hewitt on the CBS coverage of the Gulf of Tonkin hearing
00:54
Don Hewitt on how television changed the public's opinion of the Vietnam War
03:08
Don Hewitt on television's coverage of the Gulf War
03:02

Martin Hoade

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Martin Hoade on his experience with World War II
01:49
Martin Hoade on the first time he saw television at the 1939 World's Fair
01:23
Martin Hoade on directing the made-for-television movie Duty Bound, about the Vietnam War
04:32

Hal Holbrook

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Hal Holbrook on going into the Army during World War II
09:39
Hal Holbrook on appearing in the groundbreaking made-for-television movie That Certain Summer
10:39

Ellen Holly

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Ellen Holly on the challenges early on of finding parts as a black actress, and on being cast in the Broadway production of "Too Late the Phalarope"
08:11
Ellen Holly on how typecasting boxes in actors, particularly African-Americans
08:56
Ellen Holly on the difficulties faced by an African-American actress who is considered "too light"
04:02
Ellen Holly on writing "The New York Times" article "How Black Do You Have to Be?" and on the reaction to it
06:55
Ellen Holly on guest-starring on Dr. Kildare, and on having to wear make-up to make her skin appear darker for the show
02:27
Ellen Holly on her groundbreaking early storyline on One Life to Live, where she was the first black actress to play a central character on a daytime drama, and on working with the crew of the show and show creator Agnes Nixon
11:18
Ellen Holly on her difficulties renewing her One Life to Live contract after the first year
10:19
Ellen Holly on going to bat for One Life to Live producer Doris Quinlan
15:24
Ellen Holly on the fallout from her going to bat for One Life to Live producer Doris Quinlan
02:07
Ellen Holly on her difficulties playing opposite the actor who portrayed "Dr. Jack Scott" on One Life to Live, which led to her first exit from the show
07:47
Ellen Holly on her and Lillian Hayman being fired from One Life to Live by producer Paul Rauch
06:42
Ellen Holly on coming to a late realization about One Life to Live and about Agnes Nixon
07:03
Ellen Holly on finally learning why she was chosen to be on One Life to Live by producer Agnes Nixon and ABC executive Brandon Stoddard
06:47
Ellen Holly on having been the focus of the first year of One Life to Live, and on the producers' fears of it becoming a "black show"
05:47
Ellen Holly on being at the 1963 March on Washington with her aunt Anna Arnold Hedgeman
06:03

Silvio Horta

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Silvio Horta on the Latino heritage and social class of Ugly Betty
02:59
Silvio Horta on the issue of sexuality on Ugly Betty
01:11

Stanley Hubbard

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Stanley Hubbard on the pause in the development of television during World War II and his father's early radio stations
02:35
Stanley Hubbard on KSTP's coverage of the Kennedy Assassination
01:53
Stanley Hubbard on KSTP's coverage of the Vietnam War
04:52

Roy Huggins

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Roy Huggins on his activities during World War II
04:10

Kim Hunter

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Kim Hunter on learning of the Kennedy assassination while shooting The Alfred Hitchcock Hour
01:46

David Isaacs

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Ken Levine and David Isaacs on the death of Frasier co-creator David Angell on 9/11
02:31

Seaman Jacobs

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Seaman Jacobs on attending the 1939 World's Fair, and on the first time he saw television
05:43

Alan Jaggs

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Alan Jaggs on his service in World War II
02:15

Allison Janney

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Allison Janney on how 9/11 was dealt with on The West Wing  and where she was on 9/11
01:54

Joseph Jennings

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Joseph Jennings on his activities during World War II
01:01

Lamont Johnson

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Lamont Johnson on directing Crisis at Central High
04:24

George Clayton Johnson

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George Clayton Johnson as serving as a cartographer for the Army
10:16

Quincy Jones

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Quincy Jones on first working on Holllywood films
03:05

Loren Jones

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Loren Jones on RCA's television exhibit at the 1939 World's Fair
01:25
Loren Jones on having been privy to the development on the atom bomb
01:12

Sidney M. Katz

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Sidney M. Katz on his experience as an editor and filmmaker in World War II
02:55

David E. Kelley

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David E. Kelley on creating Boston Legal in the post- 9/11 era
03:00

Lynwood King

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Lynwood King on his experiences in World War II
05:30

Don Roy King

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Don Roy King on directing coverage of 9/11 for CBS
04:43

Ernest Kinoy

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Ernest Kinoy on The Defenders  episode "The Non-Violent" and the Civil Rights movement
01:24
Ernest Kinoy on the first time he saw television at the 1939 World's Fair
01:01
Ernest Kinoy on the public reaction to Roots  and its impact on the Civil Rights movement
02:20
Ernest Kinoy on the legacy of Roots  and Roots: The Next Generations
02:22

Eartha Kitt

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Eartha Kitt on being an African-American performer on television in the 1950s
07:30
 Eartha Kitt on dealing with racism in television
02:46

Jack Klugman

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Jack Klugman on being drafted in War World II
01:13

Mario Kreutzberger

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Mario Kreutzberger on Sabado Gigante's show on 9/11

Sid Krofft

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Sid Krofft on the 1939 World's Fair
00:51

Sheila Kuehl

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Sheila Kuehl on the planned Zelda Gilroy  spin-off of The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis
06:28
Sheila Kuehl on Bob Denver as "Maynard G. Krebs" on The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis
06:16
Sheila Kuehl on coming out as a lesbian on The  Geraldo Rivera Show  and Good Morning America
02:04
Sheila Kuehl on the Supreme Court's 2013 ruling regarding gay marriage
01:42
Sheila Kuehl on being the first lesbian elected to the California State Assembly
02:04

Paul LaMastra

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Paul LaMastra on editing the made-for-television movie Foxfire and living with HIV
11:37

Perry Lafferty

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Perry Lafferty on his activities during World War II, including working for Armed Forces Radio
07:45

Rita Lakin

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Rita Lakin on the first time she saw television, and on her experience with World War II
03:17
Rita Lakin on the advent of the showrunner, and on being the first female showrunner on Flamingo Road
03:50
Rita Lakin on the television movie Torn Between Two Lovers, and on advancing the cause of more women television writers
01:33

Ring Lardner, Jr.

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Ring Lardner, Jr. on his experiences during World War II
03:16

Peter Lassally

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Peter Lassally on how his German family was affected by World War II
02:57

Lucy Lawless

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Lucy Lawless on Xena's world on Xena: Warrior Princess  and the lesbian overtones of the show
02:41
Lucy Lawless on dealing with her fame from Xena: Warrior Princess  and being a feminist icon
02:00
Lucy Lawless on how television has changed for women and in general since she started acting
02:25

Gene LeBell

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Gene LeBell on getting drafted during the Korean War and joining The Coast Guard
06:38
Gene LeBell on doing stunts for black actors
01:32

Norman Lear

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Norman Lear on his experience with World War II in the Air Force
02:28

Michael Learned

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Michael Learned on how things have changed for actresses since she started acting
01:25

Jim Lehrer

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Jim Lehrer on his experience growing up during World War II
01:38
Jim Lehrer on covering the assassination of John F. Kennedy
15:51
Jim Lehrer on the JFK Memorial in Dallas
03:11
Jim Lehrer on joining up with Robert MacNeil and covering the Watergate hearings
04:23
Jim Lehrer on covering the Vietnam war
01:15

Ken Levine

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Ken Levine and David Isaacs on the death of Frasier  co-creator David Angell on 9/11
02:31

Barry Levinson

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Barry Levinson on the political climate in 2016 and how it related to the media climate of the time
01:37
Barry Levinson on directing HBO's You Don't Know Jack and the effect of the movie on the dialogue surrounding assisted suicide
01:30

Frank Liberman

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Frank Liberman on his experience with World War II
05:16

Judith Light

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Judith Light on dealing with the AIDS crisis and playing "Jeanne White" in The Ryan White Story
14:35
Judith Light on starring in A Step Toward Tomorrow  with Christopher Reeve
02:49
Judith Light on her Ugly Betty  character "Claire Meade" and working with America Ferrera as "Betty Suarez"
04:44
Judith Light on the importance of Transparent
04:13

Loretta Long

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Loretta Long on the power of television, and on the impact that her character of "Susan" on Sesame Street has had on black television characters
01:31

Julia Louis-Dreyfus

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Julia Louis-Dreyfus on being the only woman on the set of Seinfeld
00:42
Julia Louis-Dreyfus on the atmosphere on the largely female set of The New Adventures of Old Christine
02:00

Susan Lucci

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Susan Lucci on All My Children's  controversial abortion storyline
01:57
Susan Lucci on the coming out of "Erica Kane's" daughter storyline on All My Children
03:12
Susan Lucci on her character "Erica Kane's" drug addiction storyline on All My Children
02:17
Susan Lucci on All My Children  being in production on 9/11 and her reaction to it
07:02

Sidney Lumet

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Sidney Lumet on his experience during World War II
04:03
Sidney Lumet on seeing television at the World's Fair, and on getting into television
02:41

Stewart MacGregory

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Stewart MacGregory on seeing television at the 1939 World's Fair
02:24
Stewart MacGregory on getting into radio in New York and the onset of World War II
09:24
Stewart MacGregory on his experiences in World War II
08:25
Stewart MacGregory on becoming a cryptograph specialist in World War II
04:34
Stewart MacGregory on going to work for The Kraft Music Hall  with Perry Como and traveling to Dallas to film the day after John F. Kennedy was shot
10:17

Anita Mann

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Anita Mann on witnessing bigotry towards African-American dancers
04:10
Anita Mann on facing discrimination in the industry as a woman
03:18

Delbert Mann

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Delbert Mann on entering World War II, his recollections of Pearl Harbor, and joining the Air Force
08:53

Randolph Mantooth

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Randolph Mantooth on 9/11
02:59

Martin Manulis

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Martin Manulis on his experience during World War II
05:10

Penny Marshall

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Penny Marshall on directing the features "The Preacher's Wife," "Riding in Cars with Boys," and dealing with 9/11
03:52

E. G. Marshall

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E.G. Marshall on working at the 1939-40 World's Fair, and on his earliest memories of television
03:11

Leslie H. Martinson

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Leslie H. Martinson on his experiences in World War II
04:59

Bob May

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Bob May on continuing to work with Olsen & Johnson when he was drafted into the Army during World War II
02:56

Beth McCarthy-Miller

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Beth McCarthy-Miller on directing Saturday Night Live in the wake of the 9/11 attacks and directing America: A Tribute to Heroes
08:40
Beth McCarthy-Miller on being a woman working on Saturday Night Live
02:44
Beth McCarthy-Miller on directing Saturday Night Live  in the wake of the 9/11 attacks and directing America: A Tribute to Heroes
08:40

Ed McMahon

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Ed McMahon on his activities during World War II
04:14
Ed McMahon on flying fighter planes as a Marine in the Korean War
01:27

Bill Melendez

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Bill Melendez on his experiences during World War II
03:19

S. Epatha Merkerson

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S. Epatha Merkerson on how 9/11 affected Law & Order
05:41

Burt Metcalfe

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Burt Metcalfe on how M*A*S*H related to Vietnam
01:47

Al Michaels

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Al Michaels on sports reporting during national tragedies; 9/11
05:14

Sig Mickelson

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Sig Mickelson on CBS News' coverage of the Korean War
02:03
Sig Mickelson on a dust up between CBS News and the Eisenhower White House over a scheduled interview with then-Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
09:58
Sig Mickelson on CBS News' coverage of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II and the technology associated with the broadcast
08:01
Sig Mickelson on the technological challenges of CBS News covering Queen Elizabeth's coronation and the innovations it helped bring about
14:16
Sig Mickelson on the Kennedy-Nixon Debates
06:26

Mitch Miller

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Mitch Miller on Leslie Uggams, who was a featured vocalist on Sing Along with Mitch
02:51
Mitch Miller on his political activism, and on the John F. Kennedy assassination
03:53

Vic Mizzy

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Vic Mizzy on serving in the Navy's welfare recreation office during World War II - working on films and writing shows
03:53
Vic Mizzy on composing songs that became hits during World War II
01:52
Vic Mizzy on playing the organ for the Navy during World War II and falling ill
08:36

John Moffitt

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John Moffitt on how The Ed Sullivan Show did not reference the Vietnam War
00:39
John Moffitt on how The Ed Sullivan Show reflected the Civil Rights Movement
00:55
John Moffitt on working on The Ed Sullivan Show during the time of the assassination and funeral of John F. Kennedy
02:48

Paul Monash

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Paul Monash on his experience during World War II
02:05

Bill Monroe

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Bill Monroe on the major news stories covered during his time at WDSU in New Orleans, including the Civil Rights Movement and the Emmett Till trial
04:01
Bill Monroe on the introduction of editorials on local news shows, like WDSU, and on their editorials on school desegregation
08:43
Bill Monroe on winning a Peabody Award in 1960 for his editorials on school desegregation
03:48
Bill Monroe on NBC News' coverage of the Civil Rights Movement, and on covering Martin Luther King, Jr. and his relationship with John F. Kennedy, and on covering the assassinations of the era
04:09
Bill Monroe on covering the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis for NBC News
03:37
Bill Monroe on NBC News' coverage of the John F. Kennedy assassination and funeral
03:50
Bill Monroe on NBC News' coverage of Vietnam
01:14
Bill Monroe on NBC News' coverage of the Vietnam War, and on covering the Lyndon B. Johnson administration
07:40
Bill Monroe on Meet the Press' coverage of Iran circa 1979, during the Iran Hostage Crisis
08:44
Bill Monroe on his greatest career achievements and regrets, and on the role television played in the Civil Rights Movement
05:05
Bill Monroe on the events that have changed the country the most in the 20th century
02:43

Thomas W. Moore

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Thomas W. Moore on his experience with World War II
03:06
Thomas W. Moore on the Kennedy/Nixon debates of 1960
05:51
Thomas W. Moore on the Kennedy-Nixon Debates
10:10

Millie Moore

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Millie Moore on how women editors have progressed through the years
01:50
Millie Moore on being one of the sole women in the A.C.E. when she joined
03:03
Millie Moore on women being more welcomed into the A.C.E. as editors, not just librarians, after the studio system began to crumble
00:45

Mary Tyler Moore

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Mary Tyler Moore on filming The Dick Van Dyke Show episode "Turtles, Ties, and Toreadors" (airdate: December 4, 1963) without an audience due to JFK's assassination
01:29

Priscilla Morgan

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Priscilla Morgan on her brother's experience in World War II and joining the WAVES
08:10
Priscilla Morgan on her experiences in the Navy WAVES
04:49
Priscilla Morgan on being a female agent in the '50s
05:41

Tad Mosel

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Tad Mosel on growing up in the Great Depression and his experience in World War II
04:03

Robert Mott

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Robert Mott on the Kennedy assassination
01:19

Bill Moyers

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Bill Moyers on the very beginning of the Vietnam conflict
00:32

Jonathan Murray

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Jonathan Murray on being in production on The Real World during 9/11
02:51

Frank Nastasi

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Frank Nastasi on his service in World War II
00:37

Alan Neuman

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Alan Neuman on the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and on his relationship with the Kennedy family
04:02

Horace Newcomb

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Horace Newcomb on how television made him and the society more socially aware
05:34
Horace Newcomb on participating in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s
05:22
Horace Newcomb on awarding Peabody Awards for the news coverage of 9/11, and on the process of judging for the awards
07:49

Bob Newhart

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Bob Newhart on his time in the service during The Korean War
02:06

Nichelle Nichols

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Nichelle Nichols on the famous Star Trek scene where her character kisses William Shatner's character in TV's first interracial kiss; the response from the South

Agnes Nixon

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Agnes Nixon on a topical story about the Vietnam War on All My Children
01:42

Edward James Olmos

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Edward James Olmos on the future of Latinos on television
02:45
Edward James Olmos on the ongoing lack of diversity on television and in movies
03:36

Don Pardo

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Don Pardo on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, and having to read the announcement of his death
03:22

Gail Parent

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Gail Parent on being the only female writer on a variety show when she was hired on The Carol Burnett Show
03:31
Gail Parent on how the business has changed for women since she started
01:07

Fess Parker

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Fess Parker on his experience with World War II
02:58

Arthur Penn

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Arthur Penn on attending the 1939 World's Fair
00:37
Arthur Penn on his experience with World War II, and on meeting Fred Coe and Lester Shorr
09:20
Arthur Penn on putting on plays while touring around Europe during World War II
06:16

Alan Perris

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Alan Perris on promoting diversity at WJXT in Jacksonville and working for Ben Bradley
02:01

Frederick S. Pierce

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Frederick S. Pierce on ABC's coverage of the Kennedy assassination and other big news stories of the day
03:01

Don Pike

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Don Pike on engineering cameras for bombs during World War II
06:45

Abraham Polonsky

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Abraham Polonsky on first encountering television at the 1939 World's Fair
02:13
Abraham Polonsky on his experience with World War II
01:46
Abraham Polonsky on being involved with the OSS during World War II
10:15

Tom Poston

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Tom Poston on his service in World War II
02:33

Jacques Pépin

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Jacques Pépin on his family's experience with World War II, and on food rationing during the war
03:19

Ward Quaal

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Ward Quaal on the country entering Word War II and on announcing the attack on Pearl Harbor
06:37
Ward Quaal on the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and how it was covered by WGN
02:26

Jorge Ramos

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Jorge Ramos on Univision covering presidential politics and its importance to the Latino community
02:31
Jorge Ramos on covering 9/11 for Noticiero Univision
03:49
Jorge Ramos on being an objective journalist and covering the Elián González story
02:57
Jorge Ramos on interviewing President Obama and pressing him on immigration reform
03:23
Jorge Ramos on interviewing various world leaders
01:47
Jorge Ramos on hosting an English-language show for Fusion
03:30
Jorge Ramos on what he hopes to achieve with his influence 
02:03
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on what separates Univision from other news gathering organizations 
06:30
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on issues that are important to them personally 
03:54
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on Univision's role in the 2008, 2012 and then-upcoming 2016 elections 
05:43
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on the emergence of Latino candidates in presidential elections 
01:55
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on changes they've seen in television journalism and Spanish news
03:45
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on the then-future of Spanish-language news and Latino journalists 
04:26
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on dream projects or goals in the then-future
03:30

Arthur Rankin, Jr.

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Arthur Rankin Jr. on World War II delaying his career
06:33

Keith Raywood

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Keith Raywood on production designing The Concert for New York City after 9/11
07:18

Marian Rees

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Marian Rees on becoming involved with the black community
05:40
Marian Rees on producing "Tell Me Where it Hurts" for General Electric Theater  and her commitment to feminism 
04:23
Marian Rees on producing The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman
08:22
Marian Rees on executive producing "Love Is Never Silent" for Hallmark Hall of Fame  and her struggle with the network to cast deaf actors in lead roles
09:26
Marian Rees on executive producing Ruby Bridges
14:48
Marian Rees on the African-American crew on Ruby Bridges  and gaining Ruby Bridges' trust
06:16
Marian Rees on the Norman Rockwell painting on which Ruby Bridges  was based and recreating it
07:25
Marian Rees on public reaction and the educational benefits of Masterpiece Theatre's American Collection's "Almost a Woman"
14:48
Marian Rees on her involvement in Women in Film
07:01

Della Reese

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Della Reese on dealing with racism in the music industry
00:49

Ed Resnick

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Ed Resnick on shooting the atomic bomb tests in Las Vegas for KTLA
06:09
Ed Resnick on the logistics of shooting the atomic bomb tests, which were broadcast live on KTLA
06:12
Ed Resnick on the crew of KTLA's broadcast of the atomic bomb test
02:41

Gene Reynolds

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Gene Reynolds on his service in the Navy in World War II
00:55
Gene Reynolds on how African-Americans were depicted on Room 222
02:36
Gene Reynolds on M*A*S*H  in regards to Vietnam
01:57

Larry Rhine

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Larry Rhine on his experience with World War II
07:08

Maria Riva

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Maria Riva on appearing on a series of cerebral palsy telethons in the 1950s at the request of Yul Brynner (the airtime donated by ABC President Leonard Goldenson), and trying to dispel the stigma of the disease
01:26

Joan Rivers

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Joan Rivers on the first time she saw television at the 1939 World's Fair
00:38

Doris Roberts

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Doris Roberts on seeing television at the 1939-40 World's Fair
00:49
Doris Roberts on the cast of Everybody Loves Raymond having been in New York City on 9/11
05:40
Doris Roberts on meeting 9/11 first responders and finding out how much Everybody Loves Raymond meant to them
02:04
Doris Roberts on the challenge of being an older woman in Hollywood and beyond
04:13

Al Roker

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Al Roker on covering 9/11 on Today
03:39

Andy Rooney

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Andy Rooney on his experience in World War II, and on writing for Stars and Stripes
12:56
Andy Rooney on his work at Stars and Stripes during World War II
12:15
Andy Rooney on the CBS Radio coverage of World War II, and on going to Normandy in the wake of D-Day
09:31
Andy Rooney on his editors at Stars and Stripes and on encountering Ernest Hemingway
05:14
Andy Rooney on covering the end of World War II for Stars and Stripes
02:10
Andy Rooney on seeing television at the 1939 World's Fair
01:04
Andy Rooney on writing CBS News documentaries about the Civil Rights Movement of the '60s including Black History: Lost, Stolen or Strayed hosted by Bill Cosby
03:02

Howard Rosenberg

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Howard Rosenberg on reader response to his column on 9/11
02:38

Meta Rosenberg

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Meta Rosenberg on developing the series Julia starring Diahann Carroll
03:57
Meta Rosenberg on advice to an aspiring television producer and succeeding in the industry as a woman
02:21

Tim Russert

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Tim Russert on his Meet the Press broadcast with Vice President Dick Cheney in the aftermath of 9/11
02:09
Tim Russert on how he found out about the attack and how journalists responded to 9/11
01:34

Romilly Rutherford

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Romilly Rutherford on the television demonstration at the 1939 World's Fair
01:01

Maria Elena Salinas

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Maria Elena Salinas on the challenges of being a female news anchor
02:47
Maria Elena Salinas on how identifying with two cultures informed her news reporting
00:59
Maria Elena Salinas on the state of Hispanic news when she started
03:38
Maria Elena Salinas on the state of Hispanic news when she started
22:43
Maria Elena Salinas on appealing to different aspects of the Latino community
Maria Elena Salinas on covering the beatification of Juan Diego
03:39
Maria Elena Salinas on covering the 1994 talks between Mexico and the Zapatistas
02:49
Maria Elena Salinas on covering various natural disasters like earthquakes and hurricanes and dealing with her personal feelings about such events 
10:13
Maria Elena Salinas on covering the Iraq War from Baghdad
23:28
Maria Elena Salinas on interviewing then-governor Pete Wilson about his stance on immigration issues for California 
02:30
Maria Elena Salinas on covering immigration and doing advocacy journalism 
03:37
Maria Elena Salinas on her difficult interview with Augusto Pinochet
01:34
Maria Elena Salinas on being called "the most recognized and trusted Hispanic newswomen in America"
01:50
Maria Elena Salinas on the current state and then-future of diversity in television 
01:30
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on what separates Univision from other news gathering organizations
06:30
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on issues that are important to them personally
03:54
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on Univision's role in the 2008, 2012 and then-upcoming 2016 elections
05:43
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on the emergence of Latino candidates in presidential elections
01:55
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on changes they've seen in television journalism and Spanish news
03:45
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on the then-future of Spanish-language news and Latino journalists
04:26
Jorge Ramos and Maria Elena Salinas on dream projects or goals in the then-future
03:30

Marlene Sanders

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Marlene Sanders on publishing the book "Waiting for Primetime" and her conclusions about women in broadcasting
02:31
Marlene Sanders on the number of women in television when she started
00:57
Marlene Sanders on covering JFK's assassination and the Cuban Missile Crisis
04:05
Marlene Sanders on hearing Martin Luther King's "I Have A Dream" speech first-hand in Washington D.C. during the March on Washington
01:28
Marlene Sanders on other female journalists when she came along
02:50
Marlene Sanders on being the first woman to anchor an evening news broadcast (for one night) and later for three months; on more women entering the business
04:29
Marlene Sanders on her role in the women's movement
10:08
Marlene Sanders on where she was on 9/11
01:10
Marlene Sanders on advice for women in broadcast journalism
01:33

Jay Sandrich

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Jay Sandrich on the impact the women's movement came to have on The Mary Tyler Moore Show
01:30
Jay Sandrich on an episode of The Mary Tyler Moore Show with a character who is gay and getting that episode on air
01:52
Jay Sandrich on how Susan Harris brought a woman's perspective to the writing on Soap
01:43
Jay Sandrich on a scene in Soap which deals with sexual tension, written from a woman's perspective
01:15
Jay Sandrich on the controversies surrounding some of the gay themes of the show Soap
02:53
Jay Sandrich on the thrill of having the number one show in American be about an African American family (The Cosby Show)
01:44
Jay Sandrich on the show Love, Sidney based on a film, which had a gay character, though the network wouldn't allow a gay character on the television version
01:19
Jay Sandrich on what good comedy can do for us socially
01:37

Isabel Sanford

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Isabel Sanford on her experience with World War II, and on her early memories of television and movies
04:33

Joseph Sargent

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Joseph Sargent on casting black extras on Gunsmoke
01:37

Bob Schieffer

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Bob Schieffer on covering 9/11
04:44

Herbert S. Schlosser

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Herbert S. Schlosser on his role in getting more African-Americans on television with shows like I Spy and Julia
02:51
Herbert S. Schlosser on programming Julia, and on African-American representation on television
03:16

Alfred Schneider

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Alfred Schneider on the decision not to allow two men to kiss on Thirtysomething
01:34
Alfred Schneider on writer/producer Susan Harris's response to being told that a scene in Soap where women were discussing sex had to be cut
00:51
Alfred Schneider on negotiating the depiction of the controversial subject matter of That Certain Summer
01:43
Alfred Schneider on meeting with special interest groups and handling their concerns about portrayals of certain groups and depictions of controversial topics on television
02:15
Alfred Schneider on sit-in protests by the gay community in response to Marcus Welby, M.D.
01:28

Robert Schuller

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Robert Schuller on dealing with Civil Rights and racism on Hour of Power
04:01
Robert Schuller on Hour of Power  expanding into Russia and meeting Mikhail Gorbachev
05:38

Ralph Senensky

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Ralph Senensky on serving in World War II
02:23
Ralph Senensky on an episode of Arrest and Trial shutting down because of JFK's assassination
02:18

Mel Shavelson

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Mel Shavelson on Bob Hope entertaining the troops in Vietnam, and on the politics of the time
07:03

David Shaw

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David Shaw on his activities during World War II
01:28

Jack Shea

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Jack Shea on entering the Army in 1952 and making training films
01:56
Jack Shea on editing Bob Hope's USO shows
03:19
Jack Shea on music director of Bob Hope's television specials, Les Brown, and entertaining troops at USO shows
05:42

Sid Sheinberg

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Sid Sheinberg on his participation in the Civil Rights Movement while in law school
07:30

Chet Simmons

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Chet Simmons on the John F. Kennedy assassination and funeral, and on television's coverage of the event
04:20

Bob Simon

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Bob Simon on covering the territorial conflicts in Northern Ireland in the late 1960s through early 1970s
06:54
Bob Simon on covering the Yom Kippur War in 1973
02:46
Bob Simon on coverage of Anwar Sadat's assassination and funeral
02:24
Bob Simon on covering the British invasion of Argentina while he was the CBS New State Dept. correspondent
01:20
Bob Simon on covering the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and the bombing of Beirut
00:39
Bob Simon on his coverage of the protests in Beijing in 1989 and just missing the Tiananmen Square uprising
05:07
Bob Simon on Benjamin Netanyahu and the political conflict in Israel between him and Yitzhak Rabin
01:13
Bob Simon on his recollections of 9/11; on reporting from Israel
01:50

Garry Simpson

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Garry Simpson on serving in the Navy as a test engineer
01:41
Garry Simpson on showing civil defense films during World War II and NBC not broadcasting television during the war after 1942
03:21

John Singleton

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John Singleton on African American culture around the time he was born (in 1968) and how that affected his parents' generation and his own generation in terms of their identity and their artistic pursuits
02:11
John Singleton on directing "Rosewood" and reflections on its historical context
16:24
John Singleton on how real-world events like the Rodney King verdict and Tupac Shakur's death have affected his work
02:22
John Singleton on what black filmmaking was like in 1991, and how it has changed over time
01:46

Howard K. Smith

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Howard K. Smith on censorship he faced at CBS radio in Berlin during World War II
00:35
Howard K. Smith on leaving Germany and arriving in Switzerland on December 7, 1941
01:29

Bob Smith

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"Buffalo" Bob Smith on his experience with World War II
01:45

Sanford Socolow

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Sanford Socolow on getting drafted into the Korean War and serving in the public information office and the First Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet group
06:06
Sanford Socolow on how Walter Cronkite became "the most trusted man in America" and the story behind Cronkite's on-air condemnation of the Vietnam War (which Cronkite delivered on a special primetime report, not on the CBS Evening News)
05:13
Sanford Socolow on Walter Cronkite's announcement that President Kennedy was dead
02:01
Sanford Socolow on CBS' coverage of the Civil Rights Movement
03:44
Sanford Socolow on CBS's coverage of the Vietnam War
03:55
Sanford Socolow on the friendship between Frank Stanton and Lyndon Johnson and whether it influenced CBS news coverage of Vietnam
04:17
Sanford Socolow on CBS coverage of the Moon Landing
04:03

Aaron Spelling

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Aaron Spelling on hiring the cast of Charlie's Angels
02:06

Lesley Stahl

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Lesley Stahl on consciously trying to convey authority as a reporter
01:07
Lesley Stahl on encountering sexism within news crews when she was a rookie reporter for CBS in Washington D.C. in the 1970s
01:47
Lesley Stahl on being told to re-do an on-camera piece without smiling (to exude more authority) while a correspondent for CBS in Washington in the 1970s
00:51
Lesley Stahl on getting hired at CBS' Washington D.C. news bureau, and how affirmative action played a part in her hiring
01:21
Lesley Stahl on the jobs women had at NBC News when she started in 1967
00:24
Lesley Stahl on women in broadcast journalism during her day
01:51

Frank Stanton

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Frank Stanton on his early awareness of television, and the introduction of television at the 1939 Worlds Fair
01:44
Frank Stanton on his associations with John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon, and on the Kennedy-Nixon debate
04:32
Frank Stanton on CBS News' coverage of Vietnam
01:07

Darren Star

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Darren Star on the censorship issues that arose on Melrose Place, particularly involving the character "Matt Fielding," who was gay
03:16
Darren Star on Sex and the City winning the Emmy right after 9/11
01:25

Ben Starr

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Ben Starr on serving in World War II as an Air Force Navigator and earning the Distinguished Flying Cross
12:54

Nick Stewart

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Nick Stewart on performing for both black and white audiences on the Vaudeville circuit
02:54
Nick Stewart on black performers and the type of comedy they practiced
02:24
Nick Stewart on the NAACP protests of Amos 'N' Andy
02:45
Nick Stewart on the end of Amos 'N' Andy  due to protests from the NAACP
05:16
Nick Stewart on how race relations affected the television industry
03:43
Nick Stewart on the then-current state of African-Americans on television 
05:56

J. Michael Straczynski

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J. Michael Straczynski on addressing 9/11 in the "Spiderman" comics
02:49

William Tankersley

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William Tankersley on how CBS Program Practices handled Civil Rights storylines on TV shows in the 1950s and '60s
02:04

Nina Tassler

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Nina Tassler on the importance of developing shows that provide leading roles for women as well as a work-life balance for lead actresses
02:36
Nina Tassler on diversity in television
03:52

Stanford Tischler

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Stanford Tishchler on serving in World War II as a film editor
03:21
Stanford Tischler on how the mid-70s pilot Only in America was not picked up by ABC because it was considered too "ethnic"
01:10

Robert Trout

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Robert Trout on how his family was impacted by World War I and attending the Presidential inauguration in 1916
06:28
Robert Trout on covering the 1939 World's Fair
01:15
Robert Trout on covering the assassination of John F. Kennedy
01:46

Saul Turteltaub

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Saul Turteltaub on his friendship with Richard Pryor and Pryor's appearance at a live show called "Calm L.A.," which was meant to calm tensions following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
02:39

Bill Tush

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Bill Tush on September 11th ending his career at CNN
05:52

Leslie Uggams

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Leslie Uggams on the role television played in the Civil Rights Movement
01:05

Helen Wagner

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Helen Wagner on As the World Turns and the Kennedy assassination 
01:21

Joseph A. Wapner

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Joseph Wapner on learning of President Roosevelt's death during World War II
01:19

Malcolm-Jamal Warner

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Malcolm-Jamal Warner on what he believes The Cosby Show  was trying to achieve
01:48
Malcolm-Jamal Warner on black culture on The Cosby Show
00:58
Malcolm-Jamal Warner on how the portrayal of Black Americans has changed since he started acting
02:28

Matthew Weiner

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Matthew Weiner on how JFK's assassination played into Mad Men' s plotlines
02:04
Matthew Weiner on the Mad Men  episode, "The Other Woman," in which "Joan Holloway" (Christina Hendricks) prostitutes herself to get an account for the firm
04:41
Matthew Weiner on season six of Mad Men  and using the news events of 1968 as a backdrop 
11:22
Matthew Weiner on the various cultural and historical references and influences for season seven of Mad Men, including the moon landing
08:18
Matthew Weiner on the gender equality themes of Mad Men  season 7a
00:44

Lou Weiss

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Lou Weiss on moving up through the ranks at William Morris and his experience with World War II
02:30

John Wells

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John Wells on crafting the stories of China Beach using real life stories from Vietnam veterans 
04:17
John Wells on Third Watch addressing 9/11 with the episode "In Their Own Words"
05:11

Tom Werner

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Marcy Carsey and Tom Werner on the Cosby  spin-off A Different World  and the awareness the program brought to black colleges
02:38

Ellen Wheeler

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Ellen Wheeler on the social relevance of Guiding Light  and then-recent storylines
07:40

Ethel Winant

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Ethel Winant on early involvement in television via the Pasadena Playhouse, and on seeing television at the 1939 Worlds Fair
02:56
Ethel Winant on her experience with World War II
03:41

Terence Winter

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Terence Winter on the impact of 9/11 on The Sopranos
04:25

Perry Wolff

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Perry Wolff on his experience in World War II and writing a novel about it
02:39

Bud Yorkin

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Bud Yorkin on his service in World War II
01:38

Leo Yoshimura

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Leo Yoshimura on the persistent lack of representation of Asian Americans on television
03:57
Leo Yoshimura on playing "Sulu" in several Star Trek parodies on Saturday Night Live over the years, and on lack of representation of Japanese people on television
06:08

Frederic Ziv

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Frederic Ziv on how his company was affected by World War II
03:07

Jeff Zucker

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Jeff Zucker on where he was on 9/11 and determining what programming was appropriate for NBC following the tragedy
03:36
Jeff Zucker on the first episode of Saturday Night Live following 9/11
01:26
Jeff Zucker on the importance of diversity in television
00:58

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