Technological Innovation

The Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Foundation Presents




Interviewees discuss the evolution of video and broadcast technology.

Julia Child on The French Chef's switch from black and white to color
Joseph M. Wilcots on the cinematographers union not being quick to welcome Black members
Lighting Director Imero Fiorentino on Telstar I, the satellite that relayed the first live transatlantic transmission on July 10, 1962— the American flag outside the sending station at Andover, Maine
Hector Ramirez on the most significant advancement to his field - the mini-cam
Film editor Dann Cahn on the new technology (multiple moviola) developed for editing I Love Lucy
Timothy Van Patten on how technology has influenced directing
Who talked about this topic

Edie Adams

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Edie Adams on The Ernie Kovacs Show being filmed in lenticular color

Robert Adler

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Robert Adler on Zenith focusing on television after World War II
Robert Adler on working for Zenith head E.F. McDonald
Robert Adler on the state of Zenith in the late '40s
Robert Adler on his duties in the research department at Zenith
Robert Adler on the innovations that came out of Zenith's research department when he was head of it
Robert Adler on Zenith's acquisition of the Rauland Corporation in 1948
Robert Adler on how the development of the remote control came about for Zenith
Robert Adler on the importance to Zenith of coming up with the remote control
Robert Adler on ultrasonic remote control devices and the battery
Robert Adler on remote control sets going into production and on the remote control system's name, Space Command
Robert Adler on how Zenith modified the remote control over the years and the popularity of the product
Robert Adler on his own personal use of the Space Command remote control and being dubbed the father of the remote control
Robert Adler on the then-future of the remote control
Robert Adler on being head of the research facility at Zenith in the '40s
Robert Adler on Zenith dealing with competitors and on selecting the projects his team at Zenith worked on
Robert Adler on working on the gated beam while at Zenith
Robert Adler on Zenith not producing equipment for broadcasters like cameras or transmitter equipment
Robert Adler on Zenith working on a prototype television projection system in 1966
Robert Adler on developing the video laser disc, which would eventually become the DVD
Robert Adler on retiring from Zenith to become a consultant and on the development of HDTV and touch-screen technology
Robert Adler on Zenith's place in television history
Robert Adler on the then-current state of television and the then-future of television
Robert Adler on advice to aspiring television scientists and inventors 
Robert Adler on his many patents and how he'd like to be remembered 
Robert Adler on precision molded plastics and touch-screen technology

Howard Anderson, Jr.

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Howard Anderson Jr. on the advent of color

Janet Ashikaga

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Editor Janet Ashikaga on farming out special effects 
Editor Janet Ashikaga on different editing systems
Editor Janet Ashikaga on film versus video
Editor Janet Ashikaga on how computers and digital formats have changed editing

Thomas Azzari

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Thomas Azzari on technological developments in television since he started his career

Buddy Baker

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Buddy Baker on the opening of The Wonderful World of Color

Bob Banner

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Bob Banner on directing The Dinah Shore Chevy Show, the first regular color broadcast

Paris Barclay

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Paris Barclay on how technology affects his directing process

Richard Bare

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Richard L. Bare on directing Petticoat Junction a nd shooting episodes in color

Erik Barnouw

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Erik Barnouw on attending an early television demonstration at by Bell Telephone Laboratory in 1927

Ted Bergmann

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Ted Bergmann on DuMont's work with color television
Ted Bergmann on DuMont and RCA's color television systems
Ted Bergmann on technological innovations at DuMont, including television transcription
Ted Bergmann on technological innovations at DuMont, including the Electronicam System
Ted Bergmann on the evolution of video tape

Milton Berle

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Milton Berle on the technological innovations that occurred during the early years of Texaco Star Theater

Rick Berman

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Rick Berman on the visual effects of Star Trek: The Next Generation

Wade Bingham

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Wade Bingham on shooting the Edward R. Murrow series Small World, one of the first intercontinental broadcasts

Frank Biondo

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Frank Biondo on the types of cameras he worked with in TV production in the 1960s
Frank Biondo on working on NBC's early color television work
Frank Biondo on differences between a Chapman crane and a jib
Frank Biondo on meeting the man who invented the jib

Linda Bell Blue

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Linda Bell Blue on technological advances in the production of Entertainment Tonight

George Bodenheimer

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George Bodenheimer on launching ESPN-HD
George Bodenheimer on announcing ESPN-3D and a conversation with Disney's Bob Iger

Paul Bogart

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Paul Bogart on how videotape changed directing
Paul Bogart on the effect of color TV on his work

Haskell Boggs

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Haskell Boggs on his impressions of early television and the advent of color television, pioneered by David and Tom Sarnoff

Mili Lerner Bonsignori

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Mili Lerner Bonsignori on how video tape impacted documentary editing, and on her Emmy nominations
Mili Lerner Bonsignori on how video tape impacted TV programs

Tom Bosley

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Tom Bosley on technological innovation in his early television years

Ed Bradley

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Ed Bradley on why 60 Minutes continued to shoot with film long after the advent of videotape

Carl Brainard

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Carl Brainard on the technology of early television cameras and television sets and on various inventions of his
Carl Brainard on developing RADAR at MIT and on forming his own company
Carl Brainard on a photo of him with an industrial television camera
Carl Brainard on a photo of a directional microphone he invented
Carl Brainard on a photo of a large television screen he invented

Garrett Brown

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Garrett Brown on inventing the Steadicam and the Arm
Garrett Brown on inventing the Skycam
Garrett Brown on the final form of the Steadicam, and on how the Steadicam works

Alton Brown

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Alton Brown on the philosophy of and developing the visual style of Good Eats

Kirk Browning

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Kirk Browning on doing the first color and videotaped shows for NBC Opera Theatre
Kirk Browning on the then-future of technology on television

Frances Buss Buch

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Frances Buss Buch on early CBS TV technology and directing color tests and demonstrations

Ken Burns

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Ken Burns on the use of technology in his work

Sid Caesar

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Performer Sid Caesar on the first sketch he did that used split screen on Your Show of Shows
Sid Caesar on the end of "live TV" with the introduction of videotape in the mid-to-late 1950s

Dann Cahn

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Film editor Dann Cahn on the new technology (multiple moviola) developed for editing I Love Lucy
Dann Cahn on film editing in the 1930s and burning nitrate film for silver
Film editor Dann Cahn on the new technology developed for I Love Lucy
Film editor Dann Cahn on the new technology developed for I Love Lucy
Film editor Dann Cahn on going from optical to magnetic soundtracks and using the "monster" moviola
Film editor Dann Cahn on the first process shot for television -- and his first time directing
Editor Dann Cahn on his preference for the moviola over flatbed editing system
Editor Dann Cahn on nonlinear editing and computer editing and how they compare to older methods of editing

Jim Cantore

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Jim Cantore on early hurricane warnings and storm surge warnings
Jim Cantore on how the technology of weather forecasting has changed

Charles Cappleman

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Charles Cappleman on the technology at the dawn of television
Charles Cappleman on the technological innovation he oversaw at CBS as manager of the production electronics department
Charles Cappleman on the role CBS executives like Frank Stanton played in technological innovation while he was manager of the production electronics department, and on its impact on news gathering
Charles Cappleman on how new technology impacted the CBS coverage of political conventions
Charles Cappleman on the technological innovations that emanated from CBS Television City
Charles Cappleman on the advent of video tape, and the impact it had on production
Charles Cappleman on the advent and development of video tape, and how it impacted production
Charles Cappleman on CBS Television City converting to color broadcasting
Charles Cappleman on how the distribution of shows to the CBS affiliates changed over time
Charles Cappleman on implementing HDTV at CBS

Steve Carlin

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Steve Carlin on being involved in an early attempt at interactive television

Glenn Gordon Caron

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Glenn Gordon Caron on the 3D episode of Medium (which was also the first HD broadcast)

Gilbert Cates

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Gilbert Cates on how technology has affected the Academy Awards

Leo Chaloukian

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Leo Chaloukian on Ryder Sound Services working in television with magnetic sound
Leo Chaloukian on sound pioneer Loren Ryder's inventions and innovations
Leo Chaloukian on demonstrating the original Nagra Recorder given to him by Loren Ryder; on the 6 microphone input recorder invented by Ryder
Leo Chaloukian on demonstrating the original magnetic tape manufactured in the 1940s by Ryder Sound
Leo Chaloukian on demonstrating the ribbon microphone

Stan Chambers

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Stan Chambers on how the definition on the early television cameras almost prevented him from being on-camera
Stan Chambers on anchoring KTLA's evening news in 1958 (and using an improvised prompting system)
Stan Chambers on KTLA's invention and use of the first news helicopter, the "telecopter" in 1958
Stan Chambers on KTLA's breaking the news story of the Rodney King beating by Los Angeles police officers
Stan Chambers on a photo of a 1952 live remote of an atomic bomb test in Nevada
Stan Chambers on a photo of the maiden voyage of KTLA's telecopter

Tony Charmoli

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Tony Charmoli on his introduction to television and his first job in the new medium
Tony Charmoli on differences between choreographing for theater versus television
Tony Charmoli on participating in color experimentation for TV
Tony Charmoli on experimenting with Chroma-Key while working on The Dinah Shore Show
Tony Charmoli on how choreography evolved over time for television versus the stage
Tony Charmoli on choreographing for the variety-series The Julie Andrews Hour
Tony Charmoli on commentary on B-roll footage of the monolithic era of TV
Tony Charmoli on commentary on B-roll footage of the use of Chroma-Key while working with Dinah Shore

Julia Child

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Julia Child on The French Chef's switch from black and white to color

Sam Christaldi

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Sam Christaldi on his early involvement in television 
Sam Christaldi on the first time he saw television and the early "flicker" of television pictures
Sam Christaldi on the early mechanical television
Sam Christaldi on how he came to work for Du Mont
Sam Christaldi on building television sets in the late '30s
Sam Christaldi on Du Mont building television sets for the public
Sam Christaldi on the early television tube receivers at Du Mont
Sam Christaldi on the strength of early television signals and programming
Sam Christaldi on television signals
Sam Christaldi on early television demonstrations 
Sam Christaldi on Du Mont's model 180 TV set
Sam Christaldi on Du Mont and the 1939 World's Fair and the early price of television sets
Sam Christaldi on the two TV stations that started broadcasting in 1939
Sam Christaldi on the early television cameras
Sam Christaldi on testing early TV tubes
Sam Christaldi on Du Mont's effect on television technical standards
Sam Christaldi on why television sets did not have a channel 1 and the difference between VHF and UHF
Sam Christaldi on on Du Mont's activities during World War II
Sam Christaldi on Du Mont's post-war activities
Sam Christaldi on Du Mont's Wanamaker studio
Sam Christaldi on sharing television technology between companies and television technology patents 
Sam Christaldi on Du Mont's Electronicam
Sam Christaldi on innovations produced by Du Mont laboratories and the superiority of Du Mont television sets
Sam Christaldi on the advent of color television and the 1949 hearing for color television technological standards
Sam Christaldi on his other responsibilities at Du Mont and giving up development
Sam Christaldi on the technological work done on television prior to World War II

Alf Clausen

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Alf Clausen on how the advent of digital music affected his work on The Simpsons

Chuck McCann with Emerson College

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Chuck McCann on how the advent of video tape impacted television, and on editing with video tape

John Conte

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John Conte on his early television series John Conte's Little Show, and on the invention of the teleprompter
John Conte on cable television's impact on his television station KMIR

Bill Conti

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Bill Conti on the technical processes in place for conducting the orchestra at the Academy Awards

Joan Ganz Cooney

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Joan Ganz Cooney on color television
Joan Ganz Cooney on struggling public TV stations -relegated to the undesirable UHF (Ultra High Frequency) range of the broadcast spectrum
Joan Ganz Cooney on The Children's Television Workshop's investments in cable systems
Joan Ganz Cooney on the online services of The Children's Television Workshop and the digital channel in the works with Nickelodeon

Bob Costello

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Bob Costello on being a unit manager at NBC when the network was experimenting with color tV

Walter Cronkite

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Walter Cronkite on seeing a television for the first time at the 1933 World's Fair
Walter Cronkite on the challenges and technological innovations behind covering a live political event
Walter Cronkite on the use of the Univac to predict election results in the 1952 Presidential election
Walter Cronkite on covering the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London in 1953, and the technical challenges that presented, including fighter pilots, and the Canadian Royal Air Force
Walter Cronkite on the advent of the Teleprompter on the 50s program You Are There

William Daniels

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William Daniels on appearing on an experimental television broadcast in 1943

Greg Daniels

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Greg Daniels on how the technology of television has changed since he started

Michael Dann

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Michael Dann on the coming of digital programming and sets
Michael Dann on David Sarnoff's desire to sell color television sets and the importance of shooting variety shows in color
Michael Dann on the cable industry and evolving technology
Michael Dann on the prospect of digital cable

Joe DeTullio

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Joe DeTullio on not using technology when designing, and drafting by hand
Joe DeTullio on the use of duratrans on Saturday Night Live

Danny DeVito

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Danny DeVito on the value of television and its future on the internet

Sam Denoff

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Sam Denoff on first seeing television at the 1939 World's Fair

George Spiro Dibie

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George Spiro Dibie on how new technology is always a work in progress

Robert Dickinson

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Robert Dickinson on new lighting technology used for the Atlanta Olympics
Robert Dickinson on the next big thing in lighting and how television lighting has changed

Roy E. Disney

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Roy E. Disney on seeing television in 1939 and his uncle Walt Disney's embracing of the new technology
Roy Disney on becoming the head of Walt Disney Animation and some of the projects and technologies produced during his tenure

Ray Dolby

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Ray Dolby on the theory behind video tape recording and bringing the theory to life
Ray Dolby on developing an all electronic system for synchronizing sound and his first patent at Ampex
Ray Dolby on his early contributions to the video tape recorder
Ray Dolby on creating a pulse FM system for modulating the signal going to video tape
Ray Dolby on his patents on the video tape recorder
Ray Dolby on the basics of his noise reduction system
Ray Dolby on adapting Dolby noise reduction for motion pictures
Ray Dolby on how theater owners reacted to his movie sound system and the first films to use it
Ray Dolby on adapting to new digital sound formats
Ray Dolby on the then-future of sound on television

Phil Donahue

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Phil Donahue on his recollections of Ampex video 
Phil Donahue on not believing in censorship

Elinor Donahue

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Elinor Donahue on family friend Dick Lane's friendship with Klaus Landsberg and her start in experimental television

Richard Donner

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Richard Donner on technology's affect on film and television

Louis Dorfsman

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Louis Dorfsman on seeing television at the 1939 World's Fair and the development of color television

David Dortort

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David Dortort on pitching Bonanza to NBC and Tom Sarnoff helping to get it on the air and shot in color
David Dortort on the popularity of Bonanza, on the effect of the show being in color, and on the sponsorship of the show by General Motors

Hugh Downs

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Hugh Downs on differences between live and taped television programs and how they impact moral obligations
Hugh Downs on how Today evolved during his tenure on the program
Hugh Downs on how color television affected Today (and how his colorblindness affects his job)

Betty Cole Dukert

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Betty Cole Dukert on the first color broadcast of Meet the Press
Betty Cole Dukert on utilizing early satellite link-ups for Meet the Press

Garvin Eddy

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Garvin Eddy on the most important developments in the technology or technique of production design
Garvin Eddy on the importance of a production designer understanding what the camera sees, and on the challenge HDTV presented

Dick Enberg

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Dick Enberg on how technology has changed sports broadcasting since he started

Nanette Fabray

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Nanette Fabray on the first time she saw television, and on being NBC's "color girl" for General David Sarnoff

Elma Farnsworth

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Elma Farnsworth on Philo's idea for electronic television
Elma Farnsworth on her husband Philo patenting television in 1927
Elma Farnsworth on the reaction of her and her husband, inventor Philo T. Farnsworth (and colleagues Cliff Gardner and Carl Christensen), on September 7, 1927 when he produced the first all-electronic TV picture (a simple straight line) with his Image Dissector tube
Elma Farnsworth on the drawbacks to mechanical disc television and the obstacles Philo encountered when creating electronic television
Elma Farnsworth on Vladimir Zworykin at RCA copying Philo T. Farnsworth's image dissector for RCA's electronic television system
Elma Farnsworth on her husband Philo T. Farnsworth lobbying for a commercial television license
Elma Farnsworth on her husband Philo T. Farnsworth's battle with RCA for electronic television's patents
Elma Farnsworth on RCA licensing Philo T. Farnsworth's patents in 1939 - the first time RCA ever licensed a patent 
Elma Farnsworth on her husband Philo T. Farnsworth's input on commercial broadcast standards for the United States
Elma Farnsworth on her husband Philo T. Farnsworth's camera tube being a part of the Apollo mission to the moon in 1969
Elma Farnsworth on moving to Los Angeles with Philo T. Farnsworth to set up a laboratory
Elma Farnsworth on how certain fabrics transmitted on experimental television and problems with lighting

Norman Felton

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Norman Felton on Studio One going from live to video tape and live television falling out of favor

Mike Fenton

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Mike Fenton on now new technologies have impacted casting

Bob Finkel

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Bob Finkel on his experience with color television

Imero Fiorentino

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Lighting Director Imero Fiorentino on Telstar I, the satellite that relayed the first live transatlantic transmission on July 10, 1962— the American flag outside the sending station at Andover, Maine
Imero Fiorentino on the equipment with which he worked in the early days
Imero Fiorentino on the tools of a lighting director and how the tools have changed over the years
Lighting Director Imero Fiorentino on working with new technology

Les Flory

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Les Flory on the development of the television pick up tube in the 1930s
Les Flory on the differences between the early mechanical and electronic television systems
Les Flory on his involvement with the development of color television and the controversy over the CBS and RCA systems
Les Flory on how much he was aware of the work of Philo T. Farnsworth, and differences between Farnsworth's system and RCA's
Les Flory on a 1956 photo of a backpack television transmitter (made for the 1956 political conventions)
Les Flory on a photo of image orthicon tubes

Ray Forrest

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Ray Forrest on how hot early TV cameras were -- and how they were made cooler by painting them aluminum instead of black
Ray Forrest on the purpose of early TV test patterns
Ray Forrest on using a television camera in a plane, pre-World War II, and expanding the range of the broadcast signal
Ray Forrest on how TV camera technology changed quickly and on using the image orthicon cameras
Ray Forrest on introducing the experimental color shows out of Princeton, New Jersey

Sonny Fox

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Sonny Fox on the primitive technology on Candid Microphone
Sonny Fox on the beginning of television

Richard Frank

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Richard Frank on seeing the future of new media and vertical integration 
Richard Frank on the effect of the internet on programming now and in the future

John Frankenheimer

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John Frankenheimer on the challenges of color television
John Frankenheimer on every 3rd episode of Climax! being in color
John Frankenheimer on videotape

Stanley Frazen

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Stanley Frazen on the mutli-head movieloa innovation, which he used while editing early television shows

Tom Freston

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Tom Freston on digital channels and branding

Gerald Fried

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Gerald Fried on using videotapes to help compose
Gerald Fried on the business side of television music and how the Internet has affected it

Harry Friedman

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Harry Friedman on how emerging technologies have affected Wheel of Fortune
Harry Friedman on Wheel of Fortune  and Jeopardy!  switching to high definition 

Murray Fromson

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Murray Fromson on the technology they used to report on the 1960 presidential convention for NBC News, and a problem he had with film when reporting for CBS News

Michael Fuchs

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Michael Fuchs on the early technical aspects of HBO
Michael Fuchs on the advent of "multiplexing" programming
Michael Fuchs on HBO's foray into international programming and the use of satellites to deliver programming
Michael Fuchs on the future of television

Larry Gelbart

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Larry Gelbart on his fight to keep a laugh track off of M*A*S*H

Lesli Linka Glatter

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Lesli Linka Glatter on how technology has changed directing

Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr.

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Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on some of the early names involved with the technological aspects of radio and his very early interest and awareness of television, including his experimenting with the cathode ray tube and microwaves
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on seeing television at the 1933 Chicago World's Fair
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on his work on hearing aid devices, and on meeting Allen B. DuMont
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on Allen B. DuMont founding the DuMont Laboratories Inc.
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on what he and Allen B. DuMont were working on when he first started at DuMont Laboratories 
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the working conditions at Allen B. DuMont's DuMont Laboratories when he was hired in 1936
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on Allen B. DuMont getting funding for his DuMont Laboratories, and on the competing British experiments with television
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on Allen B. DuMont's vision for bigger tubes for early television, and on British "Cossor tubes"
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on developing an in-house broadcast system at DuMont Laboratories, and on early test patterns
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on working with inventor Lee De Forest at DuMont Laboratories 
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the television sets that Allen B. DuMont's DuMont Laboratories manufactured before World War II
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on DuMont's Model 180, their first television set, and demonstrating it at the 1939 World's Fair
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the early development of the kinescope and videotape 
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on why the NTSC made it so televisions do not have a channel one, and on how the NTSC impacted sets that were already sold
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the NTSC authorizing the start of commercial broadcasting in July of 1941 and where the entire industry was at that time
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the use of DuMont Laboratories' Electronicam to film The Honeymooners
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on DuMont's Electronicam and the advent of Ampex magnetic videotape
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on setting up an experimental local station (WTTG) in Washington, D.C. right after World War II
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on DuMont's competition in putting out television receivers and camera equipment just after World War II
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on DuMont dealing with FCC regulations in the wake of the FCC freeze on the granting of new television licenses in 1948
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the creation of ABC due to FCC regulations, and DuMont shedding its broadcasting operations
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the advent of color television broadcasting 
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the industry push toward color television in the 1950s involving David Sarnoff and Allen B. DuMont, and on the NTSC setting standards for color television
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on competitors working together to arrive at standards for color television
Thomas T. Goldsmit,h Jr. on Kenneth A. Hoagland developing a computerized system pixels for full color television
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the achievements of the DuMont Network, and on dealing with both the technical and the programming side of DuMont
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on Paramount's detrimental involvement with the DuMont Network, and on the reasons for the end of the DuMont Network
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the dissolution of the DuMont Network due in part to lack of channels available from the FCC allocation plan 
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on the coaxial television cable connecting San Francisco to New York
Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. on his own achievements, and the achievements of DuMont Laboratories and of Allen B. DuMont
Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. on the then-current state of television and the then-future of television from a technological standpoint 

Lewis Gomavitz

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Lewis Gomavitz on working at an experimental television station
Lewis Gomavitz on the kinds of cameras and other equipment used at the experimental television station he worked at
Lewis Gomavitz on Kukla, Fran & Ollie being used for tests of color broadcasts

Julian Gomez

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Julian Gomez on the switch over to digital editing in the 1990s

Julian Goodman

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Julian Goodman on NBC being the first network to broadcast in color

Curt Gowdy

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Curt Gowdy on the 1964 and 1968 Olympic games and the importance of satellite feeds

Herb Granath

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Herb Granath on hiring Jack Healy to help run ABC's new cable TV programming
Herb Granath on ABC's entrance into the cable TV business

Earle Hagen

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Earle Hagen on technological advancements in music in television since he started his career

Paul Henning

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Paul Henning on appearing on experimental television in 1929
Paul Henning on shifting from black and white to color on The Beverly Hillbillie s

Albert Heschong

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Albert Heschong on art directors making the transition from black and white to color

Arthur Hiller

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Arthur Hiller on what he felt was lost when the technology changed from "live" television to tape
Arthur Hiller on NBC Matinee Theater being broadcast in color
Arthur Hiller on moving from "live" to film television
Arthur Hiller on the difference between working in "live" television and taped television

Leslie Hoffman

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Leslie Hoffman on technical advances in digital effects since she started as a stunt person

Lee Holdridge

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Lee Holdridge on how evolving technology has affected composing
Lee Holdridge on how technology has impacted his own music writing

Stanley Hubbard

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Stanley Hubbard on the early transmission and technology of television stations
Stanley Hubbard on the rise of color television and cable
Stanley Hubbard on KSTP News' weather radar
Stanley Hubbard on his father pursuing technological innovation in television, and the stations making the transition to color
Stanley Hubbard on the technological advancement of using videotape in news broadcasts and Electronic News Gathering (ENG)
Stanley Hubbard on the then-current state of HBO and Hubbard Broadcasting's acquisition of United States Satellite Broadcasting Company and Direct Broadcast Satellite
Stanley Hubbard on the growth of satellite television in the '80s and '90s
Stanley Hubbard on his 1991 agreement with DIRECTV
Stanley Hubbard on the death of his father and creating a satellite news gathering truck
Stanley Hubbard on creating a satellite news gathering truck (CONUS)
Stanley Hubbard on KSTP starting to broadcast a digital signal in 1999
Stanley Hubbard on the technical aspects of switching over to digital television and the then-future of interactive television
Stanley Hubbard on the then-current state of television advertising and DVR technology
Stanley Hubbard on the then-future of television advertising and the impact of the internet on television

Gwen Ifill

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Gwen Ifill on PBS NewsHour's online presence

Lucy Jarvis

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Lucy Jarvis on her crew for The Kremlin  and it being NBC first major color broadcast
Lucy Jarvis on her NBC News documentary Museum Without Walls  utilizing the Telstar satellite for the broadcast

Al Jean

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Al Jean on how technology has changed the animation process of The Simpsons

Joseph Jennings

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Joseph Jennings on working with the other art directors at CBS Television City, and the differences between art directors working in film and those working in live television or video taped television 
Joseph Jennings on how the transition to color impacted the work of the art director, and on dealing with lighting
Joseph Jennings on the then-new technologies in art direction and how production design has changed over the years

Lamont Johnson

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Lamont Johnson on the process and limitations of the kinescope
Lamont Johnson on the curtain calls and end credits of NBC Matinee Theater, and on the show being in color

Julie Ann Johnson

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Julie Ann Johnson on how changes in technology have impacted the stunt industry

Charles Floyd Johnson

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Charles Floyd Johnson on how computers and fax machines impacted TV production
Charles Floyd Johnson on how evolving technology has impacted television production

Loren Jones

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Loren Jones on the early mechanical television system
Loren Jones on the early television development team at RCA, headed by David Sarnoff and including Vladimir Zworykin
Loren Jones on working on the development of television transmitters, and on installing equipment on top of the Empire State Building
Loren Jones on early experimental television broadcasts in the 1930, who could see them, and the programming
Loren Jones on scientist Edward Armstrong's role in the development of television, and his patent feud with David Sarnoff
Loren Jones on the feeling about the future of television in the RCA Lab in the 1930s
Loren Jones on using balloons to test television transmission signals
Loren Jones on going to the Soviet Union the help develop their television system
Loren Jones on being sent to the Soviet Union to help with their development of television, and being followed by the KGB
Loren Jones on America's interest in helping the Soviet Union set up its television system
Loren Jones on transmitting RCA's first broadcast service W2XBS
Loren Jones on the first television set he owned and on the early development of color television
Loren Jones on developing the "television bomb"
Loren Jones on the development of color television and the battle over it
Loren Jones on the slow progress of research on television transmission in the 1930s, and on the hurdles in developing a television system including the "light problem"
Loren Jones on being in charge of the new products division of RCA after World War II
Loren Jones on various scientists involved with the development of television
Loren Jones on various scientists involved with the development of television

Bob Keeshan

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Bob Keeshan on Captain Kangaroo's switch from black and white to color

H. Wesley Kenney

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H. Wesley Kenney on the cameras used at DuMont and other technical aspects

Larry King

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Larry King on the future of the television medium

Jeff Kisseloff

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Jeff Kisseloff on his family being the first ones on the block to have color television, and on being an early cable television adopter
Jeff Kisseloff on the challenge of maintaining historical video, audio, and documents in the digital age

William Klages

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William Klages on early color TV
William Klages on lighting equipment and technology; on video vs. film
William Klages on how color TV changed lighting

Jack Klugman

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Jack Klugman on how tape affected live television
Jack Klugman on The Odd Couple going from single to multicamera and getting a live audience

Don Knotts

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Don Knotts on the eventual overtaking of TV over radio as the dominant medium for entertainment

Buz Kohan

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Buz Kohan on how evolving technology impacted his writing process

Kay Koplovitz

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Kay Koplovitz on discovering the potential of satellite technology after hearing a lecture by Arthur C. Clarke

Ted Koppel

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Ted Koppel on the technology setup to report from Vietnam
Ted Koppel on technological innovations used on ABC News Nightline

Mario Kreutzberger

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Mario Kreutzberger on embracing social media in his programs

Steve Kroft

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Steve Kroft on how technology has changed reporting on 60 Minutes

Paul LaMastra

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Paul LaMastra on how the technology and approach to editing has changed since he started

Susan Lacy

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Susan Lacy on the improvements in technology for filming documentaries (cameras and AVIDs) since American Masters premiered

Angela Lansbury

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Angela Lansbury on the odd makeup one had to wear in early television (because of the lights and camera quality)

Gene LeBell

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Gene LeBell on how blue and green screens have changed the stunt profession

Stan Lee

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Stan Lee on how technology has affected animation

Richard Lewis

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Richard Lewis on the advent of color television and producing feature films

Jerry Lewis

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Jerry Lewis on appearing on color TV tests in 1942 and meeting Albert Einstein in the process
Jerry Lewis on the creation of the video assist

Charles Lisanby

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Charles Lisanby on designing color tests for CBS
Art Director Charles Lisanby on CBS' early experimentation with color

John J. Lloyd

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John J. Lloyd on how color television affected art direction 
John J. Lloyd on changes in technology that affected the materials he used

Christopher Lloyd

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Christopher Lloyd on the effect of the internet on his career as a content creator

James L. Loper

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James L. Loper on how KCET received its early programming and equipment
James L. Loper on satellite distribution of PBS programming

Sam Lovullo

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Sam Lovullo on how the invention of video tape changed the industry, and on transitioning into business affairs

Susan Lucci

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Susan Lucci on how the television industry and technology have changed since she started her career

Sidney Lumet

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Sidney Lumet on the advent of video tape

Stewart MacGregory

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Stewart MacGregory on how the advent of color affected his job as stage coordinator 

Delbert Mann

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Delbert Mann on Fred Coe demonstrating NBC's color system
Delbert Mann on how videotape changed television and directing "The Red Mill" for CBS

Bob Markell

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Bob Markell on working with color on television
Bob Markell on the transition from "live" TV to the use of recorded tape

John A. Martinelli

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John Martinelli on technical advancements in editing
John Martinelli on how digital technology has changed editing

Leslie H. Martinson

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Leslie H. Martinson on the advent of color television 

Jim McKay

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Jim McKay on the new television medium: seeing a boxing match on TV for the first time
Jim McKay on the advent of videotape and the method of recording television and how it affected his schedule
Jim McKay on how technology changed things for sports television: tape versus live TV in auto-racing

Sig Mickelson

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Sig Mickelson on CBS News' coverage of election night in 1952 and on the use of the Univac computer
Sig Mickelson on CBS News' coverage of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II and the technology associated with the broadcast
Sig Mickelson on the technological challenges of CBS News covering Queen Elizabeth's coronation and the innovations it helped bring about
Sig Mickelson on the impact of the advent of video tape on CBS News and sports
Sig Mickelson on how technological innovation has changed the way news events are covered by networks, and on the government's role in regulating the broadcast industry

Walter C. Miller

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Walter C. Miller on his time as an engineer in the early years of NBC television, and on how that background helped him as a director

Mitch Miller

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Mitch Miller on the changing technology of recording music in the 1950s

Newton N. Minow

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Former FCC Chairman Newton Minow on John F. Kennedy's vision for satellite communications

Don Mischer

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Don Mischer on how the emergence of cable in the 1980s affected the industry
Don Mischer on the technological advances that enhance production

John Moffitt

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John Moffitt on The Ed Sullivan Show going to color in 1965

Millie Moore

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Millie Moore on working with Avid

Thomas W. Moore

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Thomas W. Moore on programming and developing Peyton Place, and on ABC dealing with the advent of color

Tad Mosel

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Tad Mosel on how the technological advances in camera work affected writing for television and on the challenges of writing to accommodate costume changes
Tad Mosel on the advent of video tape and its impact on television

Hal Needham

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Hal Needham on his invention the "Shotmaker" and other innovations

Anne Nelson

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Anne Nelson on how the advent of videotape changed the business

Alan Neuman

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Alan Neuman on technological advances during his directing career, and on wanting to keep on working

Lori Openden

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Lori Openden on the technological innovations over the years that now allow her to approve all guest stars on CW shows
Lori Openden on how the abundance of digital platforms has impacted casting

Don Pardo

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Don Pardo on how microphones have changed over the years

Marty Pasetta

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Marty Pasetta on how television has changed due to technology and business

Dick Van Patten

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Dick Van Patten on seeing a prototype of TV at the World's Fair for the first time

Timothy Van Patten

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Timothy Van Patten on how technology has influenced directing

Arthur Penn

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Arthur Penn on the coaxial cable which connected the two coasts

Don Pike

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Don Pike on his earliest days in television with Philo T. Farnsworth and the early equipment and sets
Don Pike on the shop where he worked with Philo T. Farnsworth and the equipment they used to build cameras and televisions
Don Pike on building early televisions for Philo T. Farnsworth 
Don Pike on manufacturing the tubes for Philo T. Farnsworth's televisions and how they worked
Don Pike on being involved in Philo T. Farnsworth's company Farnsworth Television and Radio
Don Pike on Farnsworth Television's facilities and its goals
Don Pike on Philo T. Farnsworth becoming ill and leaving his company, and other inventions that Farnsworth was working on
Don Pike on how early television signals worked
Don Pike on the impact of Philo T. Farnsworth's declining health on his research, and RCA's iconoscope tube
Don Pike on engineering cameras for bombs during World War II
Don Pike on perfecting the television picture and the responsibilities of a technical director
Don Pike on his training program to become a technical director
Don Pike on transferring to RCA's color lab in 1949
Don Pike on creating early color cameras
Don Pike on experimenting with different color television systems
Don Pike on testing color television and the race to bring it to the public
Don Pike on becoming a color coordinator for NBC
Don Pike on how the advent of color affected television production
Don Pike on the challenges of getting early television colors correct
Don Pike on going to work covering NASA for NBC
Don Pike on the legacy of Philo T. Farnsworth

Carroll Pratt

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Carroll Pratt on dealing with the limitations of early television set speakers, and on modifying equipment once the technology improved

David Pressman

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David Pressman on his first television job (and his first use of videotape) after being blacklisted: directing Esso Repertory Theatre for David Susskind
David Pressman on the writing on One Life to Live  and how technology has changed the production process

Ward Quaal

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Ward Quaal on working on the initial advisory panel on HDTV in 1987, and on the deadline for analog to digital conversion

Hector Ramirez

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Hector Ramirez on the most significant advancement to his field - the mini-cam
Hector Ramirez on technological developments in the 1970s and how they changed shooting
Hector Ramirez on working in HD

Joyce Randolph

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Joyce Randolph on doing experimental television for GE in Schenectady, NY

Dan Rather

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Dan Rather on how news television was transmitted in the early 1960s via telephone lines and microwaves
Dan Rather on the changing media landscape in the early 1980s
Dan Rather on the future of television news

Sumner Redstone

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Sumner Redstone on digital television and challenging cable, and on HDTV and fragmentation
Sumner Redstone on media consolidation

Carl Reiner

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Carl Reiner on keeping The Dick Van Dyke Show in black and white
Carl Reiner on how his decision to rerun episodes of The Dick Van Dyke Show led to the show's rise in popularity
Carl Reiner on Desi Arnaz's revolutionary 3 camera system used on The Dick Van Dyke Show

Ed Resnick

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Ed Resnick on being hired by Klaus Landsberg to work on an experimental television test stage
Ed Resnick on working for early experimental television station W6XYZ under Klaus Landsberg
Ed Resnick on getting on camera for the first time at W6XYZ and how the station worked
Ed Resnick on the technological state of television in 1944
Ed Resnick on the mechanics of operating a camera in the early days of television and early remotes
Ed Resnick on the erection of KTLA's transmitter on Mount Wilson
Ed Resnick on KTLA's early broadcast facilities
Ed Resnick on the advent of videotape in 1956 and how it was used by KTLA in the early years
Ed Resnick on technological advances in television cameras over the years and the advent of color

Lee Rich

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Lee Rich on the 3-camera system used at Desilu studios
Lee Rich on the advantages and disadvantages of cable 

Ted Rich

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Ted Rich on shooting a show with a studio audience and the invention of the laugh track

Hank Rieger

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Hank Rieger on publicity for NBC's first primetime color show, Bonanza
Hank Rieger on promoting color television at NBC

Heino Ripp

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Heino Ripp on the reliability of the equipment at NBC when he started

Cokie Roberts

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Cokie Roberts on how technological advances have changed the television news industry, and on challenges it presents

Al Roker

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Al Roker on working with different kinds of weather maps over the years

Phil Roman

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Phil Roman on how the animation business has changed since he started, and on the impact of new technologies on animation

Andy Rooney

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Andy Rooney on writing for Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts, and on CBS' entry into television, and attempts at color television

Howard Rosenberg

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Howard Rosenberg on television technology

Thomas Del Ruth

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Thomas Del Ruth on acting as director of photography for the pilot of ER  and the use of the steadicam

Romilly Rutherford

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Romilly Rutherford on his early experimentation with sight and sound
Romilly Rutherford on getting into creating television 
Romilly Rutherford on going to work for Philo T. Farnsworth
Romilly Rutherford on his hours and daily duties working for Philo T. Farnsworth
Romilly Rutherford on Philo T. Farnsworth's lab
Romilly Rutherford on Philo T. Farnsworth's activities in his lab
Romilly Rutherford on getting new equipment in Philo T. Farnsworth's lab
Romilly Rutherford on various people with whom he worked at Philo T. Farnsworth's lab
Romilly Rutherford on the mood in the Farnsworth lab and the possible applications of his research
Romilly Rutherford on the first picture transmitted in Farnsworth's lab
Romilly Rutherford on very early test broadcasts in Philo T. Farnsworth's lab
Romilly Rutherford on the competition to Philo T. Farnsworth's work
Romilly Rutherford on the publicity Philo T. Farnsworth received and how Farnsworth handled the press
Romilly Rutherford on Philo T. Farnsworth's lab during the Depression and moving the lab to Philadelphia 
Romilly Rutherford on Philo T. Farnsworth's then-new Philco lab in Philadelphia and the progress made in the year he took off 
Romilly Rutherford on money and other obstacles faced by Philo T. Farnsworth and his Philco lab
Romilly Rutherford on Philo T. Farnsworth leaving Philco and being hired to work for Farnsworth again at a different company
Romilly Rutherford on the Franklin Institute demonstration of television in 1934
Romilly Rutherford on Philo T. Farnsworth setting up a television studio in 1936
Romilly Rutherford on the then-current state of television

Jay Sandrich

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Jay Sandrich on the way television was recorded on kinescopes to broadcast on both coasts and the innovation of Desi Arnaz in using film for I Love Lucy
Jay Sandrich on the inventor Charlie Douglas and his laugh track machine, which was used on The Andy Griffith Show
Jay Sandrich on the first show (We'll Get By) to tape all four cameras and the difference between film and tape

Ted Sarandos

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Ted Sarandos on witnessing the move from VHS to DVD when he was working for the video store Video City
Ted Sarandos on the development of Netflix's algorithm
Ted Sarandos on Netflix launching its streaming service in 2007 and the biggest challenges of providing this service

Joseph Sargent

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Joseph Sargent on technical innovation during his directing career

Thomas W. Sarnoff

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Thomas W. Sarnoff on being "the first live star" on NBC television during a signal test
Thomas W. Sarnoff on NBC's transition to color television and the production of color show Matinee Theater
Thomas W. Sarnoff on Matinee Theater getting people to talk about color television

William Schallert

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William Schallert on how scenes with the identical cousins were shot in The Patty Duke Show

Edgar J. Scherick

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Edgar Scherick on why ABC's Wide World of Sports was groundbreaking and on some of the technology that helped make the show possible
Edgar Scherick on the impact of cable on television

Lalo Schifrin

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Lalo Schifrin on how technology has impacted his work

Max Schindler

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Max Schindler on how technology has changed the news business since he began his career

Thomas Schlamme

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Thomas Schlamme on then-new delivery methods for television

Herbert S. Schlosser

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Herbert S. Schlosser on how the advent of color impacted NBC's business dealings in the early '60s
Herbert S. Schlosser on the RCA technology that was utilized when he started at NBC, and how it developed over time

Arthur Schneider

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Arthur Schneider on the kinescope, and how it was used for television, and his other responsibilities at NBC
Arthur Schneider on NBC's early television facilities at Sunset and Vine, and the editing equipment he used there
Arthur Schneider on how the transcontinental cable impacted television broadcasting in the United States, and on NBC moving to Burbank in 1954
Arthur Schneider on the advent of video tape and its impact on television
Arthur Schneider on editing on video tape
Arthur Schneider on editing color videotape
Arthur Schneider on his role in creating the instant replay

Reese Schonfeld

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Reese Schonfeld on CNN being completely computerized when it went on the air
Reese Schonfeld on the early technology used by CNN, some of which gave it a leg up on network news
Reese Schonfeld on dealing with the FCC on satellite delivery of television

Ralph Senensky

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Ralph Senensky on shooting in color on The Wild, Wild West
Ralph Senensky on how technology has influenced his directing

John Shaffner

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John Shaffner on set design for standard definition vs. high definition 
John Shaffner on the first time he saw color television

Mel Shavelson

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Mel Shavelson on the early development of television, and of color television, and on writing an early experimental broadcast with Bob Hope

Jack Shea

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Jack Shea on early television equipment
Jack Shea on how early TV programs were transmitted from California to New York
Jack Shea on how color TV changed his work

Sid Sheinberg

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Sid Sheinberg on MCA taking on Betamax and advocating other home video technology
Sid Sheinberg on the emergence of cable and satellite television 

James Sheldon

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James Sheldon on the television exhibit he would show to visitors as an NBC Page in the early 1940s

Sidney Sheldon

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Sidney Sheldon on working with Screen Gems and trying to get I Dream of Jeannie shot in color

John Silva

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John Silva on the technological innovations he learned about as a a radar officer in World War II
John Silva on KTLA's early equipment and facilities; on the first mobile unit
John Silva on his inventions for mobile units
John Silva on inventing the Telecopter (an airborne helicopter remote)
John Silva on the actual construction and development of the Telecopter, his team, and testing
John Silva on creating a second Telecopter (Telecopter 2)
John Silva on technological innovations that occurred during his tenure at KTLA, including the advent of videotape and video editing
John Silva on KTLA's transition to color television
John Silva on white balancing for color television

Chet Simmons

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Chet Simmons on ESPN's early offices, equipment, technology, and location

Garry Simpson

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Garry Simpson on the evolving technology for early experimental television
Garry Simpson on working in videotape and how color affected television production

Doris Singleton

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Doris Singleton on the differences between working in radio and television
Doris Singleton on the invention of the three camera technique on I Love Lucy

Ira Skutch

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Ira Skutch on the technical challenges of the earliest television cameras circa 1946
Ira Skutch on the lighting in the early days of television

Dick Smith

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Dick Smith on the coming of color television and renegotiating his salary
Dick Smith on creating makeup and appliances for color television

Sid Smith

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Sid Smith on color production on Your Hit Parade  
Sid Smith on his tenure at The Jimmy Durante Show and changes in the show when production moved to Desilu and shot on film
Sid Smith on the technology used on Wide Wide World
Sid Smith on directing Telstar satellite's first broadcast
Sid Smith on inventing spotlight discs for the Miss U.S.A. and Miss Universe pageants so contestants would be well lit on stage

Bob Smith

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"Buffalo" Bob Smith on his 1954 heart attack, during his tenure as host of Howdy Doody, and on the show being in color starting in 1955

Sanford Socolow

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Sanford Socolow on the use of graphics and videotape on Douglas Edwards' news broadcasts 
Sanford Socolow on technological changes that had occurred during his absence from CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite and that aided CBS coverage of the Munich Olympics in 1972

Frank Stanton

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Frank Stanton on the FCC issuing the original licenses to television stations around the country, and CBS' failed color system
Frank Stanton on CBS' involvement with the home video recorder, and with inventor Peter Goldmark

Jerry Stiller

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Jerry Stiller on first seeing TV at the World's Fair in 1939

Howard Storm

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Howard Storm on the difference between shooting on film or tape

George Sunga

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George Sunga on acting as Production Manager for Ed Sullivan's various trips to Los Angeles to do The Ed Sullivan Show  and the transition to color
George Sunga on the guest stars on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour  and the innovative technical aspects of the show

Grant Tinker

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Grant Tinker on NBC moving to color television

Ted Turner

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Ted Turner on TBS going to color

Ret Turner

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Ret Turner on advances in camera and lighting technology in regards to wardrobe for television

Tony Verna

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Tony Verna on creating the instant replay for the Army/Navy football game in December of 1963
Tony Verna on the advent of the instant replay
Tony Verna on directing the first satellite feed from London
Tony Verna on using the "action track" in sporting events and the advent of color television 
Tony Verna on the "Ice Bowl"
Tony Verna on his company, Praxis Limited and "instant instant replay"

Bob Vila

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Bob Vila on and his internet presence

Helen Wagner

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Helen Wagner on the first time she appeared on television: a 1946 experiment to test what colors worked for black and white

Ruth Warrick

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Ruth Warrick on participating in an early experimental television test
Ruth Warrick on starring in an episode of Robert Montgomery Presents  and her thoughts on the advent of videotape

Keenen Ivory Wayans

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Keenen Ivory Wayans on digital technology and the internet

Matthew Weiner

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Matthew Weiner on switching from film to video starting with the fifth season of Mad Men

Av Westin

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Av Westin on the technological innovations and the impact of satellites during his tenure at ABC News
Av Westin on Executive Producing the A&E documentary The Eagle and the Bear and the impact of cable television
Av Westin on the impact of the internet on television news

Michael Westmore

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Michael Westmore on how prosthetics have changed over the years
Michael Westmore on CGI's impact on the makeup industry

Ellen Wheeler

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Ellen Wheeler on how emerging technology changed the way Guiding Light  is produced 

Betty White

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Betty White on the Betty White Show experimenting with color in 1954, and on the show going off the air

Susan Whiting

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Susan Whiting on Nielsen measuring media saturation and multiplexing on various platforms
Susan Whiting on data collection over the years
Susan Whiting on a tour of Nielsen meters through the years

Tucker Wiard

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Tucker Wiard on editing technology developed and used by CBS
Tucker Wiard on the technical revolution of computer-driven non-linear editing and the use of the AVID editing system
Tucker Wiard on the differences between editing film and video tape on Murphy Brown
Tucker Wiard on why the visual quality of The Carol Burnett Show has held up over the years

Joseph M. Wilcots

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Joseph M. Wilcots on technological innovations during his career, and on working with a crew

Ethel Winant

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Ethel Winant on casting for Playhouse 90's production of "The Old Man" -- the first production on television to utilize edited video tape

Terence Winter

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Terence Winter on how digital technology has affected his work

Jonathan Winters

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Jonathan Winters on doing the first color TV show in the U.S.

Ben Wolf

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Ben Wolf on the emergence of video tape and the transition to color
Ben Wolf on the kinescope 
Ben Wolf on then-recent technological developments for cameras and then-current cinematography
Ben Wolf on how cinematography has changed

David L. Wolper

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David L. Wolper on making the switch to color for his documentaries

Frederic Ziv

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Frederic Ziv on filming shows in color

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