Hollywood Blacklist


The Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Foundation Presents

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About

 BLACKLISTING

Blacklisting is the practice of refusing to hire or terminating from employment an individual whose opinions or associations are deemed politically inconvenient or commercially troublesome. In the U.S. tradition, the term is forever linked to the fervent anti-communism of the Cold War era, a time when government agencies, private newsletters, and patriotic organizations branded selected members of the entertainment industry as (variously) card-carrying communists, fellow travelers, pinkos, or unwitting dupes of Moscow. The rubric "McCarthyism" is often used as shorthand for the reckless accusations and limitations on free expression during the Cold War, but from a media perspective the term is something of a misnomer. The period of the blacklist pre-dated and post-dated the junior senator from Wisconsin's reign and McCarthy himself evinced little interest in the entertainment industry: his targets of choice were the Department of State and the U.S. Army. The blacklisting of directors, writers, and performers in film, radio, and television was the project of a much wider coalition of anti-communist forces, a web of interlocking agents that included government investigators (the FBI), legislative committees (the House Committee on Un-American Activities and the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee), private interest groups (American Business Consultants, AWARE, Inc.) and patriotic organizations (The American Legion, the Veterans of Foreign Wars). They applied pressure on, and worked in concert with, fearful and compliant studio heads, network executives, sponsors, and advertising agencies to curtail the employment opportunities and civil rights of targeted undesirables.

The convergence of two cultural historical factors abetted the blacklist. One of the legacies of World War II was a heightened sensitivity to the political impact of the popular media; one of the coincidences of history was that television's early days paralleled precisely the escalating intensity of the Cold War in the years from 1946 to 1954. The contest between East and West, Soviet Communism and American Democracy, found its domestic expression in impassioned debates over the subversive influence of the mass media. In June 1950, the atmosphere reached fever pitch with the arrest of the atomic spies Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and the outbreak of the Korean War. That same month the editors of Counterattack, a four page "newsletter of facts on communism," issued a special report entitled Red Channels, The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television, a listing of 151 names of performers deemed to be communist party members or to have like-minded opinions and associations (called "fellow travelers" in the argot of the day). The Red Channels report formalized an informal practice in effect since at least November 1947 when representatives from the major Hollywood studios pledged they would "not knowingly employ a communist" and "take positive action" on "disloyal elements." Though the scholarship of Red Channels was slipshod--the actors listed ranged from unapologetic Communist Party members, to mainstream liberals, to bewildered innocents--its impact was immediate and long-lasting. CBS instituted in-house loyalty oaths; the advertising firm of Batten, Barton, Durstine, & Osborn recruited executives to serve as security officers. A study on blacklisting in the entertainment industry published by the Fund for the Republic in 1956 concluded that Red Channels put in black and white what was previously an ad hoc practice and thus "marked the formal beginning of blacklisting in the radio-TV industry."

As an emergent medium subject to government oversight by the Federal Communications Commission, television was the most timorous of the mass media when confronted by state power. The scrutiny of legislative bodies concentrated the minds of network executives powerfully, notably the hearings held by the House Committee on Un-American Activities in November 1947 and throughout 1951 and 1952 and a kindred set of hearings on the "Subversive Influence of Radio, Television, and the Entertainment Industry" held by Senator McCarran's Internal Investigatory Subcommittee in 1951. Moreover, as an advertiser supported medium still in embryonic development, television was especially susceptible to protests from special interest groups threatening product boycotts, pickets, or public censure. Casting the widest commercial net possible, the networks aimed for "100% acceptability" and assiduously avoided alienating any group of potential viewers.

Though the effect of the blacklist was punitive, its rational was preemptive. From the perspective of the networks, its purpose was less to rid the medium of subversive content than to avoid the controversy that ensued upon the appearance of a suspect individual. Rather than canceling the appearance of announced performers or firing known talent, the blacklist tended to operate off-camera, behind the scenes, by deleting or clearing talent in advance. Though the list in Red Channels was the founding document, other lists and publications (not to say rumors and innuendo) might also render an individual politically radioactive in the eyes of any one of the networks, sponsors, or advertising agencies.

For talent tainted with the communist brush, the path to vindication was tortuous. Once accused, actors might suffer in silence, defy the accusations, or engage in rituals of public recantation or denial ("clearance") either before Congress, in the public press, or at the offices of Counterattack itself. Given the difficulty of proving a negative, the total number of people burned by the blacklist--careers permanently derailed, jobs lost, or energies squandered--is difficult to gauge, but hundreds were listed and investigated and thousands were singed by paranoia. Even allowing for the vagaries of memory and self-romanticization, the blacklist traumatized a generation of artists in the entertainment industry. One particularly tragic case may stand for many. Listed in Red Channels, Philip Loeb, who played the warm Jewish patriarch in Molly on radio and in the show's first television season in 1950-51, was replaced in the show's second season after General Foods withdrew its sponsorship. An embittered and unemployed Loeb committed suicide in 1955.

In the wake of the TV-inspired downfall of McCarthy in 1954, some of the pressure to purge alleged subversive from the airwaves lifted, but the blacklist--both as a formal, institutionalized procedure and as an informal gentleman's agreement--endured well into the next decade. The motion picture industry begin gingerly defying the blacklist in the late 1950s and by 1960 was giving screen credit to once-blacklisted writers. By contrast, television, ever cautious, kept well back in the ranks of defiance. Not until the fall of 1967, on The Smothers Comedy Brothers Hour, was blacklisted folk singer Pete Seeger finally "cleared" for a return to network television.

-Thomas Doherty

 

FURTHER READING

Bentley, Eric. Are You Now or Have You Ever Been: The Investigation of Show Business by the Un-American Activities Committee, 1947-1958. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.

Burton, Michael C. John Henry Faulk: The Making of a Liberated Mind. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press, 1993.

Ceplair, Larry. The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1980.

Cogley, John. Report on Blacklisting. New York: Fund for the Republic, 1956.

Faulk, John Henry. Fear on Trial. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1964.

Foley, Karen Sue. The Political Blacklist in the Broadcast Industry: The Decade of the 1950s. New York: Arno, 1979.

Navasky, Victor S. Naming Names. New York: Viking, 1980.

Vaughn, Robert. Only Victims: A Study of Show Business Blacklisting. New York: Putnam, 1972. 

 

Highlights
Writer Walter Bernstein on being listed in "Red Channels" and his subsequent blacklisting
10:42
Ring Lardner, Jr. on being cited for contempt by the House Un-American Activities Committee and going to jail, and on the Hollywood Ten
08:58
Charles S. Dubin on being called to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee and being blacklisted for five years
09:05
Robert Vaughn on his dissertation on The Blacklist
03:59
Kim Hunter on the impact of the Hollywood Blacklist on television
02:12
Ruth Engelhardt on the Hollywood Blacklist
10:05
Who talked about this topic

Berle Adams

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Berle Adams on how he dealt with the Hollywood Blacklist
02:03

Mary V. Ahern

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Mary V. Ahern on Joseph N. Welch (who stood up to Senator Joseph McCarthy at the Army-McCarthy hearings) being involved with the Omnibus series on the Constitution
06:55

Steve Allen

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Steve Allen on the Hollywood Blacklist
05:13

Charlie Andrews

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Charlie Andrews on working with Walter Cronkite and Dick Van Dyke on The Morning Show and his experience with the Hollywood Blacklist
03:43

Larry Auerbach

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Larry Auerbach on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:34

Reza Badiyi

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Reza Badiyi on censorship because of the Blacklist
01:03

Erik Barnouw

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Erik Barnouw on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:46
Erik Barnouw on the importance of the Hollywood Blacklist to understanding the history of broadcasting and on Edward R. Murrow's denunciation of Senator Joseph McCarthy
02:58

Cliff Barrows

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Cliff Barrows on Billy Graham's response to the threat of Communism
04:35

Joe Behar

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Joe Behar on not being affected by the Hollywood Blacklist
00:49

Dick Berg

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Dick Berg on his experiences with the Hollywood Blacklist
00:54

Ted Bergmann

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Ted Bergmann on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:44

Shelley Berman

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Shelley Berman on working during the Hollywood Blacklist
00:54

Walter Bernstein

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Writer Walter Bernstein on being listed in "Red Channels" and his subsequent blacklisting
10:42
Walter Bernstein on the use of "fronts" during the Blacklist period and the confusion it created among those who speculated who the real writers were.
02:14
Writer Walter Bernstein on working on television (using fronts) while blacklisted
Walter Bernstein on the subversive subtext of You Are There; on Edward R. Murrow's See It Now denouncing Senator McCarthy
01:47

Barbara Billingsley

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Barbara Billingsley on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:35

Paul Bogart

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Paul Bogart on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:52

David Brinkley

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David Brinkley on Senator Joseph McCarthy's "list" of 205 alleged Communists
06:31

James L. Brooks

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James L. Brooks on McCarthyism, the Hollywood Blacklist and Edward R. Murrow's influence
03:14

Frances Buss Buch

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Director Frances Buss Buch on being aware of the Hollywood Blacklist and signing a loyalty oath for CBS
01:06

James Burrows

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James Burrows on his father being called before the House Un-American Activities Commission 
01:01

Robert Butler

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Robert Butler on directing a Defenders episode where an actor was deemed "unacceptable" due to the Blacklist
00:58

Dann Cahn

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Film editor Dann Cahn on the Blacklist era and Lucille Ball facing accusations of being a communist
00:56

Marge Champion

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Marge Champion on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:23

Esme Chandlee

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Esme Chandlee on how Blacklisting affected her clients
02:50

Cyd Charisse

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Cyd Charisse on the Hollywood Blacklist
00:35

Tony Charmoli

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Tony Charmoli on his awareness of the Blacklist in the 1950s
01:56

William Clotworthy

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William Clotworthy on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:24

Tony Roberts with Emerson College

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Tony Roberts on Zero Mostel and the Hollywood Blacklist
01:07

Henry Colman

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Henry Colman on his encounter with the Blacklist during his tenure at Robert Montgomery Presents
03:32

John Conte

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John Conte on his experience with the Hollywood Blacklist
01:13

Hal Cooper

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Hal Cooper on the Hollywood Blacklist
06:53

Bob Costello

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Bob Costello on producing Armstrong Circle Theatre; on the Armstrong Cirlcle Theatre production of "Nightmare in Red" about Communism; on his dealings with McCarthyism and the Blacklist
25:25

Alexander Courage

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Alexander Courage on his memories of the Hollywood Blacklist
02:54

Warren Cowan

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Publicist Warren Cowan on representing "High Noon" and Gary Cooper's partnering with suspected Communist Carl Foreman; on some of his clients who appealed to the HUAC; on the atmosphere created by McCarthyism
02:15

Richard Crenna

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Richard Crenna on the Hollywood Blacklist
02:40

Walter Cronkite

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Walter Cronkite on how the Hollywood Blacklist affected him and the news industry, specifically the writers on the dramatic program You Are There: Abe Polonsky, Walter Bernstein, and Charles Collingwood
08:43

Hume Cronyn

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Hume Cronyn on the Hollywood Blacklist
07:53

Robert Culp

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Robert Culp on his first work for television on You Are There and on how his being new to television during the Blacklist period got him started in television
03:27

Michael Dann

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Michael Dann on The Hollywood Blacklist
02:00

Ossie Davis

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Ossie Davis on the effect of the Blacklist on him and fellow performers and on being called to testify at the HUAC
07:09

Madelyn Pugh Davis

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Bob Carroll, Jr. & Madelyn Pugh Davis on the Blacklist and Lucille Ball's being branded a Communist during I Love Lucy
02:40

Ruby Dee

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Ruby Dee on protesting the death penalty for the Rosenbergs and being blacklisted in Red Channels
12:12

Sam Denoff

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Sam Denoff on the Hollywood blacklist
02:39
Sam Denoff on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:17

Dixon Dern

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Dixon Dern on working for the UPA studio during the McCarthyism era and the Hollywood Blacklist; he was asked to submit the names on the list; he calls it "A conspiracy of censorship". Lucille Ball was accused of being a communist.
04:51

Richard Donner

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Richard Donner on the Hollywood Blacklist and Martin Ritt
03:08

Louis Dorfsman

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Louis Dorfsman on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:50

David Dortort

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David Dortort on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:36

Hugh Downs

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Hugh Downs on The Hollywood Blacklist not affecting booking guests on The Tonight Show
02:11

Charles Dubin

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Charles S. Dubin on being called to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee and being blacklisted for five years
09:05

Betty Cole Dukert

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Betty Cole Dukert on how Meet the Press  dealt with McCarthyism and partisan politics
03:46

Bob Elliott

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Bob Elliott on "Bob and Ray" doing comedy bits about McCarthyism
04:11

Ruth Engelhardt

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Ruth Engelhardt on the Hollywood Blacklist
10:05

Rod Erickson

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Rod Erickson on the Hollywood Blacklist's effect on television advertising
13:35

Nanette Fabray

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Nanette Fabray on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:59

Norman Felton

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Norman Felton on his experiences with the Blacklist
08:00

Mike Fenton

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Mike Fenton on the craft and technique of casting for television and on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:10

Horton Foote

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Horton Foote on the Hollywood Blacklist
02:16

John Forsythe

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John Forsythe on the Hollywood Blacklist
02:12

Eddie Foy, III

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Eddie Foy III on the Hollywood Blacklist
06:30

Reuven Frank

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Reuven Frank on the Senator Joseph McCarthy hearings
01:28

John Frankenheimer

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John Frankenheimer on the Hollywood Blacklist
00:40
John Frankenheimer on the Hollywood Blacklist and The Senator McCarthy episode of See It Now
03:38
John Frankenheimer on the Hollywood Blacklist and the blacklisted writers of You Are There
00:49
John Frankenheimer on sponsor interference on Climax!  
01:58

Albert Freedman

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Albert Freedman on raising money for the defense fees for those on trial during the Hollywood Blacklist
01:58

Gerald Fried

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Composer Gerald Fried on blacklisted musicians
01:43

William Froug

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William Froug on his experiences with the Hollywood Blacklist and being forced to have a copy of Red Channels on his desk to use for casting
06:07

Arthur Gardner

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Arthur Gardner on his memories of working during The Red Scare and the Blacklist
00:42

Betty Garrett

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Betty Garrett on how the Hollywood Blacklist impacted her and her husband Larry Parks
12:40
Betty Garrett on finally being removed from the Blacklist, and on meeting Senator Joseph McCarthy
04:20

Greg Garrison

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Greg Garrison on the Hollywood Blacklist and how it impacted actor Jack Gilford and others
04:54

Larry Gelbart

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Larry Gelbart on his memories of the Hollywood Blacklist; the seriousness of it
00:55

Herschel Burke Gilbert

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Herschel Burke Gilbert on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:57

Leonard H. Goldenson

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Leonard Goldenson on airing The McCarthy Hearings in their entirety on ABC
01:16

Lewis Gomavitz

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Lewis Gomavitz on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:24

Julian Goodman

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Julian Goodman on the Hollywood Blacklist and McCarthyism and Herbert Hoover telling him a Communist was working on one of his shows
03:21
Julian Goodman on Edward R. Murrow's See it Now episode, "Senator McCarthy"
00:57

Curt Gowdy

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Curt Gowdy on The Hollywood Blacklist
01:51

Lee Grant

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Lee Grant on her relationship with Arnold Manoff and their experiences with the Hollywood Blacklist
15:07
Lee Grant on testifying before the House Un-American Activities Committee
09:08
Lee Grant on her friends and co-workers reaction to having been blacklisted, and on what her life was like when she was on the blacklist
04:23
Lee Grant on the fate of her then-husband Arnold Manoff, who'd been blacklisted, and on how other writers and actors dealt with the Hollywood Blacklist
03:37
Lee Grant on her feelings on those who named names to the House Un-American Activities Committee like Elia Kazan, and on the end of the blacklist
07:53
Lee Grant on appearing on Search for Tomorrow and on being fired because of the blacklist
04:45
Lee Grant on how the Hollywood Blacklist effected television as a whole
01:28

Walter E. Grauman

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Director Walter Grauman on hiring formerly blacklisted actor Jeff Corey on The Untouchables (and how Corey nearly lost the job)
03:23
Director Walter Grauman on the Naked City episode "Hold for Gloria Christmas," recalling it for early appearances by Alan Alda and Jessica Walter, as well as for "Joel Carpenter" who he discovered was blacklisted Arnold Manoff's pseudonym
03:22

Everett Greenbaum

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Everett Greenbaum on the Hollywood Blacklist
02:11

Earl Hamner, Jr.

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Earl Hamner on the effect of the Blacklisting era
01:47

Jeffrey Hayden

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Jeffrey Hayden on the Hollywood Blacklist and how he helped actor Will Geer
00:37

Skitch Henderson

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Lyle "Skitch" Henderson on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:55

Paul Henning

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Paul Henning on recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist
01:35

Arthur Hiller

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Arthur Hiller on the Hollywood Blacklist
02:04

Louis J. Horvitz

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Louis J. Horvitz on Elia Kazan's Honorary Oscar in 1999
03:12

Roy Huggins

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Roy Huggins on joining the Communist Party
05:28
Roy Huggins on how his communist leanings impacted the work he was doing as a novelist
02:01
Roy Huggins on writing the feature film "Hangman's Knot" and being placed on the Hollywood Blacklist
09:41
Roy Huggins on writing and directing the feature "Hangman's Knot" despite being blacklisted 
04:16
Roy Huggins on being subpoenaed by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) and naming names
11:02

Kim Hunter

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Kim Hunter on being blacklisted in the 1950s
07:33
Kim Hunter on the impact of the Hollywood Blacklist on television
02:12

Seaman Jacobs

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Seaman Jacobs on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:02

Joseph Jennings

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Joseph Jennings on the Hollywood Blacklist
00:25

Russell Johnson

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Russell Johnson on being questioned about his politics because of his name
05:29

Lamont Johnson

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Lamont Johnson on working with Fay Wray, and on the Hollywood Blacklist
02:25
Lamont Johnson on being on the Hollywood Blacklist, and on producer Albert McCleery disregarding it to hire him
07:32
Lamont Johnson on dealing with the Hollywood Blacklist, and later directing many issue-oriented shows like My Sweet Charlie
03:04

Robert Justman

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Robert Justman on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:28

Irma Kalish

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Rocky and Irma Kalish on the impact of the Hollywood Blacklist
04:05

Rocky Kalish

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Rocky and Irma Kalish on the impact of the Hollywood Blacklist
04:04

Sidney M. Katz

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Sidney M. Katz on editing Edward R. Murrow's See It Now  series and the episode on Joseph McCarthy
03:52
Sidney M. Katz on dealing with Hollywood Blacklist
01:44

Bob Keeshan

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Bob Keeshan on the network and Captain Kangaroo  and the Hollywood Blacklist
03:12

Ernest Kinoy

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Ernest Kinoy on the McCarthy era and the Blacklist episode of The Defenders
05:43
Ernest Kinoy on the Hollywood Blacklist and The Defenders
03:28
Ernest Kinoy on the Hollywood Blacklist and Red Channels 
10:56

Jack Klugman

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Jack Klugman on "The Blacklist" episode of The Defenders and winning an Emmy for the role
04:59
Jack Klugman on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:02
Jack Klugman on his recollections about the Hollywood Blacklist
04:34

Ring Lardner, Jr.

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Ring Lardner, Jr. on being called before the House Un-American Activities Committee
16:16
Ring Lardner, Jr. on the experience of testifying before the House Un-American Activities Committee
07:56
Ring Lardner, Jr. on the experience of testifying before the House Un-American Activities Committee
05:53
Ring Lardner, Jr. on being cited for contempt by the House Un-American Activities Committee and going to jail, and on the Hollywood Ten
08:58
Ring Lardner, Jr. on serving time for contempt of Congress
04:51
Ring Lardner, Jr. on his experiences writing for The Adventures of Robin Hood under a pseudonym during the Hollywood Blacklist era
08:38
Ring Lardner, Jr. on the McCarthy hearings, and on the end of the Hollywood Blacklist
05:55
Ring Lardner, Jr. on the fear and paranoia of the Hollywood Blacklist, and on writing various feature films
05:54
Ring Lardner, Jr. on why he believes the Hollywood Blacklist happened
02:52
Ring Lardner, Jr. on how his experience with the Hollywood Blacklist shaped his writing, and on how he'd like to be remembered
02:09

Piper Laurie

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Piper Laurie on her experiences with the Hollywood Blacklist
05:24

Norman Lear

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Norman Lear on how he turned down requests to be a front for blacklisted writers during the Hollywood Blacklist
01:52

Jack Lemmon

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Jack Lemmon on how the Hollywood Blacklist impacted his friends and colleagues
03:15
Jack Lemmon on appearing on the series Heaven for Betsy  and the Hollywood Blacklist 
03:18

Sheldon Leonard

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Producer Sheldon Leonard on the Hollywood Blacklist; how he got some writers reinstated
04:33

Richard Lewis

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Richard Lewis on producing Who's There, starring Arlene Francis and Melvyn Douglas, who was blacklisted
07:44

Frank Liberman

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Frank Liberman on the Hollywood Blacklist
00:21

John J. Lloyd

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John J. Lloyd on his recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist
02:00

Sam Lovullo

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Sam Lovullo on the Hollywood Blacklist
00:50

Sidney Lumet

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Sidney Lument on the correspondents of You Are There, and on their political affiliations and the Blacklist
10:52
Sidney Lumet on his experience with the Hollywood Blacklist
07:01
Sidney Lumet on individuals that were targeted by the Hollywood Blacklist, including Walter Bernstein, and on blacklisted writers
08:14
Sidney Lumet on various television scripts that were covertly about the Hollywood Blacklist
05:31

Stewart MacGregory

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Stewart MacGregory on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:06

Robert MacNeil

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Robert MacNeil on the Hollywood Blacklist
06:20

Loring Mandel

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Loring Mandel on the Hollywood Blacklist, and on casting blacklisted actors on Studio One
05:46

Delbert Mann

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Delbert Mann on how his career was affected by the Hollywood Blacklist
07:25

Abby Mann

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Abby Mann on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:20

Martin Manulis

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Martin Manulis on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:12

Bob Markell

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Bob Markell on how the Blacklist affected the cast and crew of You Are There
04:23
Bob Markell on an episode of The Defenders that dealt with the Blacklist
04:35

E. G. Marshall

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E.G. Marshall on The Defenders doing an episode about the Hollywood Blacklist
05:59

Dick Martin

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Dick Martin on the Hollywood blacklist
02:39

Leslie H. Martinson

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Leslie H. Martinson on the Hollywood Blacklist
10:33

Bob McGrath

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Bob McGrath on one of his first times seeing television - the McCarthy hearings
01:16

Jayne Meadows

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Jayne Meadows on the Hollywood Blacklist: on her sister Audrey meeting Sen. McCarthy and how Mark Goodson protected his actors
04:26
Jayne Meadows on how her sister Audrey Meadows got hired on The Honeymooners with Jackie Gleason because of the Hollywood Blacklist
01:57

Anne Meara

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Anne Meara on her recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist
04:58

Bill Melendez

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Bill Melendez on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:53

Burt Metcalfe

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Burt Metcalfe on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:58

Sig Mickelson

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Sig Mickelson on his experiences with the Hollywood Blacklist at CBS News
08:29
Sig Mickelson on the blacklisting of CBS News correspondent Winston Burdett
04:33
Sig Mickelson on the atmosphere at CBS News during the period of the Hollywood Blacklist, and his memories of the time
02:05
Sig Mickelson on the publication "Red Channels," and on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:37
Sig Mickelson on signing a loyalty oath for CBS News and on other issues connected with the Red Scare
05:42

Vic Mizzy

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Vic Mizzy on not having any involvement with the Hollywood Blacklist
01:01

Paul Monash

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Paul Monash on the Hollywood Blacklist
05:55

Bill Monroe

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Bill Monroe on Senator Joseph McCarthy and the Communist witch hunts of the 1950s
01:39

Thomas W. Moore

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Thomas W. Moore on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:04

Millie Moore

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Millie Moore on her first film as a full editor, working for Dalton Trumbo on "Johnny Got His Gun"
02:47

Harry Morgan

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Harry Morgan briefly on the Blacklist (he was neighbors with Lionel Stander in later years)
00:45

Howard Morris

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Howard Morris on the Hollywood Blacklist
00:47

Robert Mott

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Robert Mott on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:49

Tony Mottola

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Tony Mottola on not being affected by the Hollywood Blacklist
02:04

Frank Nastasi

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Frank Nastasi on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:44

Anne Nelson

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Anne Nelson on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:24

Alan Neuman

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Alan Neuman on the Hollywood Blacklist
08:46

Leonard Nimoy

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Leonard Nimoy on actor Jeff Corey's blacklisting, and how Nimoy became involved in teaching as an indirect result
00:42

Dick Van Patten

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Dick Van Patten on his memories of the Hollywood Blacklist
00:50

Pam Polifroni

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Pam Polifroni on getting into casting on The Loretta Young Show, and on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:25

David Pollock

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David Pollock on his father being on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:02

Abraham Polonsky

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Abraham Polonsky on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:27
Abraham Polonsky on testifying before the House Un-American Activities Committee
02:42
Abraham Polonsky on Elia Kazan's testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee, and on working in the aftermath
04:39
Abraham Polonsky on using pen names during the Hollywood Blacklist
03:48
Abraham Polonsky on his career after the Hollywood Blacklist
00:55
Abraham Polonsky on Elia Kazan, if the Hollywood Blacklist could happen again, and on his and his family's politics
06:11

Tom Poston

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Tom Poston on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:02

Carroll Pratt

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Carroll Pratt on the Hollywood Blacklist
02:26

David Pressman

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David Pressman on learning his was blacklisted and being fired from Treasury Men in Action
05:02
David Pressman on being blacklisted; on teaching at Boston University from 1954-1959 during his unemployment; on then running the Neighborhood Playhouse; on the end of the blacklist; on trying to get jobs in television during the blacklist period; on David Susskind hiring him for television
08:53
David Pressman on how being blacklisted affected him
04:47
David Pressman on "secretly" directing The Philip Morris Playhouse while he was blacklisted
06:27
David Pressman on the Hollywood Blacklist happening again
01:12

Ward Quaal

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Ward Quaal on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:31

Charlotte Rae

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Charlotte Rae on her experience with the Hollywood Blacklist
02:02

Joyce Randolph

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Joyce Randolph on Audrey Meadows replacing Pert Kelton in the cast of The Honeymooners
00:42

Frances Reid

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Frances Reid on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:49

Carl Reiner

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Carl Reiner on blacklisted writer, Frank Tarloff and his own experience with the Blacklist
03:39

Del Reisman

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Story editor Del Reisman on the advent of the Blacklist; on loyalty oaths; on "fronts"
18:27
Del Reisman on the end of the Blacklist era
06:16

Gene Reynolds

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Gene Reynolds on the Hollywood Blacklist 
03:40

Larry Rhine

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Larry Rhine on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:21

John Rich

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John Rich on the Hollywood Blacklist (and witnessing an actor being fired during a reading of an episode of I Married Joan)
03:15

Lee Rich

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Lee Rich on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:47

Hank Rieger

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Hank Rieger on United Press covering the Hollywood Blacklist
00:46

Rita Riggs

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Rita Riggs on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:00

Cliff Robertson

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Cliff Robertson on his recollections of The Hollywood Blacklist
00:47

Andy Rooney

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Andy Rooney on his encounter with the Blacklist while he was at CBS
08:42

Aaron Ruben

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Aaron Ruben on getting a subpoena to testify during the Hollywood Blacklist 
05:24

Marlene Sanders

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Marlene Sanders on her recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist
00:29

Jay Sandrich

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Jay Sandrich on his memories of the Hollywood Blacklist and some colleagues who were affected, and why Lucille Ball was accused of being a Communist 
02:22

Joseph Sargent

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Joseph Sargent on his experience with the Hollywood Blacklist
01:44

Bob Schiller

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Bob Schiller and Bob Weiskopf on their recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist
02:17

Alfred Schneider

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Alfred Schneider on dealing with the Hollywood Blacklist as an executive at CBS
02:36

Ralph Senensky

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Ralph Senensky on his experiences with McCarthyism and the Blacklist
01:49

Mel Shavelson

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Mel Shavelson on Bob Hope doing jokes about Senator Joseph McCarthy
01:40
Mel Shavelson on his experience with the Hollywood Blacklist, and on the societal impact of television
09:39

David Shaw

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David Shaw on the Hollywood Blacklist
04:04
David Shaw on The Defenders dealing with the Hollywood Blacklist
02:14

Jack Shea

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Jack Shea on the Hollywood Blacklist
02:28

Sidney Sheldon

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Sidney Sheldon on his recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist
04:18

James Sheldon

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James Sheldon on the Hollywood Blacklist 
04:53
James Sheldon on nearly being fired because of a mix up involving another man named James Sheldon during the Hollywood Blacklist era 
01:12
James Sheldon on why he doesn't remember many details of the Blacklist era
01:02

Garry Simpson

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Garry Simpson on Red Channels and advertiser control over early TV programs
02:53

Doris Singleton

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Doris Singleton on the Hollywood Blacklist and Red Channels
02:01

Sid Smith

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Sid Smith on recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist
03:37

Dick Smith

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Dick Smith on being warned about the Hollywood Blacklist
01:46

Dick Smothers

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Tom and Dick Smothers on hiring blacklisted singer Pete Seeger
02:20

Tom Smothers

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Tom and Dick Smothers on hiring blacklisted singer Pete Seeger
02:20

Aaron Spelling

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Aaron Spelling on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:27

Frank Stanton

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Frank Stanton on Edward R. Murrow's commentary on Senator Joseph McCarthy
04:51
Frank Stanton on the policies invoked at CBS during the blacklist period, and on the loyalty oath
04:33
Frank Stanton on CBS and the Hollywood Blacklist
07:44

Jean Stapleton

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Jean Stapleton on John Randolph and others standing up to the Hollywood Blacklist
01:00

Ben Starr

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Ben Starr on his recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist
02:06

Leonard Stern

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Leonard Stern on how Jackie Gleason fought for an actress who was supposed to play "Alice" on The Honeymooners , who was blacklisted

Bob Stewart

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Bob Stewart on finding out about the Blacklist when Abe Burrows was discussed as a possible radio show guest but denied because he was "in the book"
01:36

Jerry Stiller

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Jerry Stiller on his memories of the Hollywood Blacklist
06:31

Gale Storm

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Gale Storm on her memories of how the Blacklist affected the entertainment industry
02:42

John Strauss

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John Strauss on speaking to newspaper columnist Hedda Hopper on behalf of actor Sterling Hayden when he was suspected of being a Communist
01:06
John Strauss on the Hollywood Blacklist
07:54

William Tankersley

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William Tankersley on his involvement with the CBS loyalty oath and the Hollywood Blacklist
04:59

Studs Terkel

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Studs Terkel on how the Hollywood Blacklist ended his budding career in television
03:19
Studs Terkel on being blacklisted and working with gospel singer Mahalia Jackson
03:36

Richard Thomas

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Richard Thomas on working with Will Geer and Ellen Corby as "Grandma and Grandpa Walton" on The Waltons, and on Will Geer having been a victim of the Hollywood Blacklist
08:29

Stanford Tischler

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Stanford Tischler on not knowing any editors affected by the Hollywood Blacklist
01:12

Robert Trout

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Robert Trout on the Communist blacklist of the 1950s
03:40

Robert Vaughn

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Robert Vaughn on his dissertation on The Blacklist
03:59
Robert Vaughn on McCarthyism and the Hollywood Blacklist; on his dissertation on the Blacklist
03:54
Robert Vaughn on his stage role as Dalton Trumbo, one of the Hollywood Ten, and what blacklisting means today
03:18

Ellen M. Violett

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Ellen M. Violett on her experience with the Blacklist of the 1950s
10:52

Mike Wallace

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Mike Wallace on how CBS handled the blacklist
03:05

Bob Weiskopf

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Bob Schiller and Bob Weiskopf on their recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist
02:17

Lou Weiss

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Lou Weiss on the Hollywood Blacklist
03:25

Av Westin

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Av Westin on the Hollywood Blacklist
01:49

Ethel Winant

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Ethel Winant on dealing with the network on casting blacklisted actors and minorities on television in the '50s
02:08
Ethel Winant on dealing with the Hollywood Blacklist on shows like Armstrong Circle Theatre
01:54

Perry Wolff

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Perry Wolff on dealing with the Hollywood Blacklist
04:20

Jane Wyatt

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Jane Wyatt on her recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist and her involvement with the CFA (Committee for the First Amendment)
04:29
Jane Wyatt on protesting the Hollywood Blacklist
02:10
Jane Wyatt on learning she had been blacklisted
01:50
Jane Wyatt on why she believes the Blacklist era happened
01:32

Bud Yorkin

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Bud Yorkin on dealing with the Hollywood Blacklist and Tennessee Ernie Ford Show  writer Roland Kibbee
01:31

Frederic Ziv

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Frederic Ziv on his recollections of the Hollywood Blacklist
01:46

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